Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning) and Second-order/Higher-order Conditioning

Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning) and Second-order/Higher-order Conditioning

[Music] hello and welcome everyone to today’s video on the topic of classical conditioning in today’s video we cover the following aspects we begin our video with a brief history or the origins of classical conditioning and then move on to understanding the concept of classical conditioning trying to answer the question what is classical conditioning and then end the video by understanding the concept of second order or higher order classical conditioning so without further ado let’s begin our video so the origins of classical conditioning can be traced back to 1927 russia more specifically to the works of a renowned russian scientist named ivan pavlov born in 1849 pavlov has been referred to as the 24th most celebrated psychologists of the 21st century he significantly contributed to the development of the behavioral learning theories in psychology and his contributions of classical conditioning reportedly inspired and influenced the fundamental ideas of the behaviourism school of psychology despite his monumental contributions to the field of psychology pavlov was not a psychologist he was in fact a physiologist and focused on studying about the digestive system which was his main area of research interest his conclusions about and the revolutions of learning and how it occurs as a function of conditioning was an outcome of a rather happy accident which went on to change the course of psychology of learning for years to come now this happened around the time when pavlov was working on an experiment with his dogs and trying to discern the amount of saliva the dogs generated to the taste of a wide variety of foods during this experiment pavlov noticed something unusual he noticed that the dogs not only salivated to the taste of the foods but they started salivating to non-food stimuli such as the side of an empty bowl or the image of food or even to the footsteps of his lab assistance now this is rather unusual phenomena because salivating to food and mouth is a reflexive process with no deliberate learning involved and thus in the situation with food in the mouth salivation of the dogs was expected however dogs don’t reflexively salivate at the sound of footsteps of people or the picture of a food or even to an empty bowl this intrigued pavlov leaving him wondering what might be causing the dogs to salivate at the site or just the sound of non-food stimuli so to investigate this further pavlov conducted an experiment during this experiment he deliberately trained the dogs to salivate in response to non-food stimuli such as the sight of light or the sound of a bell through these experiments pavlov realized two important aspects he realized that organisms like animals or humans generates two different types of responses to his or her surrounding environments the first one is an unconditioned response which they don’t need to learn and this can be manifested as reflexes and the second is conditioned response which are deliberately learned the latter is the key basis of the concept of classical conditioning so let’s see what pavlov did in his experiments that will help us understand what is classical conditioning however before we proceed let’s get some terminology right the concept of stimulus type in the context of classical conditioning is a rather important one because in the context of classical conditioning we deal with different types of stimulus and thus having an understanding of the distinctions between these stimulus types are crucial here we start with the two most important and rather basic stimulus types and then we build on as we go further the first type of stimulus important in the context of classical conditioning is the unconditioned stimulus or the ucs these could include any stimulus such as food that essentially elicit a reflexive unknown response such as salivation these reflexive unknown responses are also referred to as unconditioned responses as they occur without any deliberate conditioning or learning taking place the next type of stimulus important in the context of classical conditioning is referred to as the neutral stimulus as in the name they are neutral in nature and therefore they do not elicit any reflexive or unknown responses right so pavlov in his experiments with the dogs used an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus across three different phases so the first phase was a before conditioning phase the next was a during conditioning phase and the last one was an after conditioning phase let’s see what he did across each of these phases in the before conditioning phase pavlov presented the dogs with the unconditioned stimulus first which was in his case meat powder presenting this led the dogs to produce an unconditioned response such as salivation he then presented the dogs with a neutral stimulus which was the sound of a bell and he saw that the dogs made no response he then went on to the second phase of the experiment which was the during conditioning phase now during the conditioning phase pavlov repeatedly presented first the neutral stimulus which was the sound of the bell and he immediately followed it by presenting the unconditioned stimulus which was the meat powder he did this across many trials as shown in the schematic here and he repeated this for a long duration following this in the after conditioning phase pavlov observed that repeatedly presenting the neutral stimulus followed by the unconditioned stimulus the meat powder let the doctor salivate that is illicit and unconditioned response or a reflexive response to the originally neutral stimulus which was the bell sound this occurred as the neutral stimulus signaled the arrival of the unconditioned stimulus which was the meat powder allowing the dog to anticipate the event thereby rendering the neutral stimulus to become a conditioned stimulus now note that the initial unconditioned response elicited to the conditioned stimulus is now referred to as the conditioned response after the conditioning process since this response has been developed as a function of the conditioning process so in summary what is classical conditioning classical conditioning is a process which helps us learn the association between an originally neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus during the process of classical conditioning the neutral stimulus attains the properties that enables it to signal the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus allowing the organisms to anticipate that the unconditioned stimulus will occur during this conditioning process the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus finally the conditioned stimulus gains the properties to elicit the same response we would elicit to an unconditioned stimulus let’s now move on to the last part of the video where we talk about the concept of second order or higher order conditioning now essentially if you understand the concept of classical conditioning understanding second order or higher order conditioning should not be that difficult second order or higher order conditioning is essentially a situation in which the constant pairing of a novel neutral stimulus with a previously conditioned stimulus eventually elicits the same conditioned responses to the novel neutral stimulus that we observed to a previously conditioned stimulus in other words pairing a novel neutral stimulus with a previously conditioned stimulus results in second order or higher order conditioning let’s unpack this a little bit with an example recall that during the conditioning phase repeatedly presenting the neutral stimulus which was the sound of the bell immediately followed by the unconditioned stimulus which was the meat powder led to eliciting a conditioned response which in the in this case was the salivation response just to the presence of the bell alone we observed this happen in the after conditioning phase now what if during the conditioning phase there was the presence of another neutral stimulus that preceded the sound of the bell imagine a situation wherein before every trial pavlov’s research assistant walks in the lab and following this the bell rings following which the meat powder is presented assuming these events occur repeatedly in brief successions we observe that after a while the dog starts salivating that is eliciting a conditioned response only at the sound of the footsteps of the lab assistant alone in such a situation the lab assistant has now become a second order or a higher order conditioned stimulus this is what second order or higher order conditioning is now generally it is difficult to achieve anything above the second order or higher order level of conditioning so that is the end of today’s video please make sure you check our upcoming video which is releasing soon this week on the topic of five general processes or stages in classical conditioning once the video is released we will make the link of this video available in the description box below so make sure you go and check that if you found any value in today’s video please make sure that you subscribe to our channel as well as leave a like you can also share this video with someone you think will benefit from it and also leave us a comment and finally don’t forget to press the bell icon to stay updated on any future uploads please follow us on our social media sites in twitter facebook and instagram and as always thank you very much for your attention see you in our next video [Music] you
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Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning) and Second-order/Higher-order Conditioning

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