Diplomacy course/session 3. Multilateral Diplomacy

Diplomacy course/session 3. Multilateral Diplomacy

so good evening everyone i hope you all are doing well i welcome you all today we will be discussing about multilateral diplomacy we have our speaker from greece mrs ranyalampu i would like to introduce miss rania and then we will move forward um she is from greece global educator and stem instructor as well as she works at the greek ministry of education and religious affairs directorate of educational technology and innovation stem education and neuro education and she has also received many national and international awards i’ll i will not you know announce the names of all those awards but i mean there are bundles of awards uh which she received uh in many conferences uh in different in greece as well as in other countries so miss rania thank you very much for joining us today uh i would like to give the floor to you so you can talk about you can discuss about multilateral diplomacy with our participants thank you very much and miss rania the floor is yours greetings from greece uh 12 participants my very very own north and thank you very much for your time invitation so today we’re going to explore different aspects of uh multilingualism means that we’re going to explore to discuss about lateral diplomacy so may share my presentation yes please you can you can share your presentation yes we can use it now yes we can see so there has been a advocate uh in the world’s way of conducting everyday business and their actions the amounts of expectations made on governments by the people given by international organizations can no longer be satisfied through isolated and self-contained efforts the reason is that both private and public non-state actors have tracked alongside national governments in setting and implementing new agendas and this interconnectivity is the reason why there is such a push for multilateralism borders and national frontiers are increasingly becoming less relevant in defining the flow of ideas with modern communication changing the world all together as we are now well into the formation age however this presents a challenge for security where terrorism arms disease and drugs may seem through borders practically unchallenged and in order to find the solutions for problems there must be in all phases active participation of local governments ngos and the private sector alarm has been raised on the national scene as globalization is considered to be a process of erosion the relatively massive effectiveness of national governments which has resulted the decline of support for international organization the solution however to many of the purposes indeed global governance uh of course this is not the creation of a world government but a level of international decision markers makers uh between governments and in the national organization we’ll present the example of united nations being the most suitable candidate for such a role the united nations has both more legitimacy political credibility and administrative impartiality to mediate moderate and reconcile the tensions associated with both the process and outcomes of globalization so in this world the threat of the global war remains fresh uh in the memory of humanity after the end of the cold war the world where major positions and the widely shared view among like-minded states has emerged and this vision is ultimately one of global global governance or at the very least an effective multilateral body designed to tackle the problems faced by the world today so multilateral diplomacy can be defined as the management of international relations by negotiation among three or more states through diplomatic or governmental representatives and this combines coordinated diplomatic interactions of more than two actors reflection within the framework of international organizations oriented towards the principles and norms and carried out in accordance with the rules and regulations that underlie those organizations in this version a multilateral foreign policy stands not only for a specific diplomatic approach but also for a commitment to certain principles substantive goals and methods of foreign policy and for underlying set of values multilateralism is the term used to describe cooperation among states it is uh it is an approach based on the promise that by working together countries can find solutions to common problems without announcing the sovereignty multilateralism refers to foreign and security policies that seek to establish maintain and further develop a specific international order through specific forms of international diplomacy the order may be the currently library and the national order but it will also be another quite different order that will be based on a different ideology although it will also be promoted multilaterally so uh diplomacy has actually expanded according to kofi annan the former u.s secretary has expanded its limit moving far beyond bilateral political relations between the states into a multilateral multifaceted enterprise encompassing almost everyone of all human endeavors and uh diplomas is guided by something principles of the national order uh the national organizations have set up agreements uh uh and uh they try to perform certain functions deliver certain uh global goods for the benefits of fall so multilateralism operates through global original institutions norms framework summits the rules and procedures defining i have the mandated legitimacy to conduct negotiations all these are very well established so multilateral diplomacy serves multiple functions serves as the parliament of man as we say like a u.n general assembly or copenhagen conference on climate change and sets also aspirational goals for humanity like the u.n and millennium development goals or sustainable development goals we all know the agenda 2030 of un for sustainable development goals it’s uh uh the most uh hot issue uh nowadays u.n convention on children and women search to negotiate international treaties that improve the states of the world and two examples stand out firstly the nuclear nonproliferation treaty and also u.n convention on the law of the sea regulation of the banks for insurance stability and sustainability of world economic and also the fact that uh some uh failures of multilateral diplomacy global level success at the original level uh however uh multilateral diplomacy is a complex phenomenon and this means that needs uh skillful leadership like this one uh artistic example is ambassador tomiko of singapore when he managed actually to leave the convention of the law of sea um [Music] by making successful uh the conclusion despite many difficulties and we all know of course about the advantages how uh cooperation can provide the political environment producing too easy and easy bilateral problems multilateral arrangements and how uh meetings can be used to achieve state’s objectives both in direct and direct manner and how multilateral negotiations tend to broaden their agenda in order to take better account of the different objectives and interests of the practice involved it’s interesting to see a historical approach the main efforts that the national community has taken in the past to minimize the national conflict are when we can see the congress of vienna the concept of europe the league of nations in the united nations the congress of vienna would be the first attempt that the national community took to formalize a long therapy state in europe and it technically was not a congress but merely a preliminary meeting of super powers to discuss a future peaceful route for the continent the main objective was peace and this was achieved to the settlement of key issues that cropped up in the aftermath of the french revolution and napoleonic wars it was an attempt to maintain the status quo and it was actually during the paris peace conference of 1990 and 1920 that a new type of institutionalized mechanism was established for states to interact with one another it’s what we call the universal organization organization the first such organization was the league of nations founded in 1920 which was replaced in 1904 after the second world war multilateralism became synonymous with the library the national order based on western concepts of international relations in order that is now being increasingly challenged so the aftermath of the whole world has made multilateral diplomacy become a major talking point for many the 21st century has brought about a huge change in the world of international relations and among along with the beginning of the rise of peace and human rights the last important century has been one for extraordinary growth every area has flourished politics technology economics globalization salon with the good has brought about a lot of new issues global warming ignoring global resources law of information the national trade weapons of mass destruction disease control that has caused occurrence able to break and also how multilateral cooperation is absolutely necessary as only collectively can these matters be solved that’s why multilateralism has become a widespread and significant phenomenon of course this has challenged of course as uh an expert said that the national cooperation is a tricky animal even where there is a will there is often no clear way so the new diplomatic era started after the first world war when the national relationship became worldwide early signs of multilateral diplomacy came with the peace conference in 1815 however much more significant implementation was later in 1945 so the united nations charter gave away for multilagra diplomacy to begin and develop apart from the uh of course we have the world to health organization which is also universal membership organization and also uh it’s interesting to see how uh also a non-governmental organization has lost them tremendously since the beginning of the 21st century and the greatest increasing and into the second 21st century which depicts a change within the major components of modern diplomacy this development had to grow a new norm within the international system especially within the united nations and ngos are now considered to be an important element within state society relationships and most of this emerged during times of conflict and many times it means you are considered to be as attracted to diplomacy governments at times may be too rigid and also too complex to spend any time to address certain issues therefore in some cases like this uh it is with the government’s interests transaction work by ngos on their behalf there are many advantages to this ngos especially within a corporate zone i looked at with less suspicious eyes secondly they actually cut costs for the government willing to operate in the area and thirdly they would be able to spend a large amount of time improving and understanding the situation in the field so it would be best to look at more tangible examples of the success of ngos in recent history because they have successfully promoted the threats of our environment is facing and all that pressure has led states to act on issues such as climate change and another uh constitute is related to multilateral diplomats it’s very important it’s important legitimacy which is actually the belief that the rule institutional leader has the right to govern hillary casey again once defined the diplomacy as a specific method for compromise and consensus and the system of organization within a legitimate national order so impover international affairs domestic politics a mandate is the authority granted by constituency to organization to act as its representative legitimacy depends on the perception or among both constituents and observers that this authority is being exercised appropriately even ever since this deception multilateral diplomacy had set itself apart from the often secretive diplomacy in the past recommitment to transparency more than on parliamentary practice formerly knowledge tends to be sufficient to justify system of governance more legitimacy results based legitimacy are playing an even more important role especially global health for multilateral organizations also legitimacy is critical because it defines whether they continue to be the main platform for states efforts to coordinate policies and solve problems affects their ability to develop new rules and norms that are accepted broadly and has a bearing on their ability to ensure compliance with the national rules and norms and legitimacy is also related to fundamental normative concerns if the national organization the process is like legitimate in society this contributes to a sense of democratic deficit and the lack of trust in global governance it’s necessary to think about what actually constitutes legitimacy especially in the age of social media in which more legitimacy is so important and in this context a new type of legitimacy is derived from the representation involvement of a large number of stakeholders legitimacy is undermined if an organization does not reflect the diversity of its constituency if it fails to recruit for example more women professionals of a global south also for senior position and another key issue is the level of interdependence the foreign organization by its members and for example there are increasing calls for uh the world health organization to be granted a stronger mandate by its member state especially in relation to health security so the decision making procedures with the nash organizations are continually being questioned as are the transparency and their representation and why do we need of course the dimensions of challenges that we have to face diffuse distribution of power and principle sovereignty the potential of shaping multilateralism and very important why do we need material policy is that uh um it’s about the information gathering the bullying joint projects managing the external environment influencing behavior mutually beneficial these domestic agendas and why because coordinating joint project is often an effective way of achieving your own objectives and states have recognized its advantages states have have joined uh forces in order to embark on a business decisions including um and coordinator and products is doctor’s approach in order to tackle the issue um and uh what are the challenges now this is i think the most important what are these advantages first of all multilateral is more protracted and costly run bilateral agreements or a unilateral while the results of multilateral agreement are generally broadened why they may not be more effective responding to the problem at home because they’re characterized by compromises and lowers the common the denominators and usually urgent problems require a protection that can be better tackled by a small number of factors while we’ve been able to move forward and also united crisis uh uh there are many disadvantages from multilateralism and other illegal difficulties and the well-known problems of collective action and this situation resembling the classic game what we call uh game theory prisoner’s dilemma in which the best situation to a concrete forum involved cannot be realized due to the absence of trust in the worst case scenario multilateralism can actually illusions such as the illusion that for example the world is making progress on military disarmament because multinational negotiations are dealing with it and this has been a situation for decades with the general conference on disarmament which has not produced any significant results for over 20 years so in general also it is difficult to sanction violations of international agreements and what is very important is observation monitoring and review mechanisms can be set up to improve the chances of successful implementation international assistance can also be provided for corresponding national implementation measures website possibility and exists and the support is also accepted and there are some also uh challenges uh uh there must be a consensus about the foundation concrete context of diplomacy what is at stake what ends are to be achieved what interests and values are to be accommodated and how and what concepts of international order will be promoted none of these can be contested or controversial and the second is about concerns in organization implementation even when there is a broad agreement on principles values and goals we have necessary but not yet sufficient preconditions for effective multiples uh bilateral is because cooperation within the framework of the paris convention climate policy demonstrates this for example it is based on principle status and procedures yet multilateral climate policy we all know that is far from slowing global warming to the desire and necessary extent so the specific promising limitations of multilateral action are uh here to mention another example is in 1981 the united nations security council was totally dead blocked over the selection of the nest secretary general because the permanent fine by use the power of the veteran formerly and more often you formally to some of that actually to disturb the decision-making procedure of the council so many times leaders put a national interest ahead of global interest and we ever have also another uh big challenge power shifts from west to south you’ll know about this non-state actors uh another uh challenge and of course we all know about the eastern palestinian um issue so what are the conditions uh that we are effective multiculturalism um so the best important concern the parties involved in their attitude do they share genuine interest in sustainable results or does their participation in the multilateral negotiation merely serve tactical goals is their willingness to compromise uh is the willingness what on the basis of diffuse reciprocity and further prerequisites concerns legitimacy of the negotiators and their ability to make binding commitments on behalf of those they represent as well as organizational arrangements for the successful implementation of commitments made if these conditions are not met there’s there is that multilateral diplomacy will be unable to achieve anything positive and may even happen risks include agreements that prove unworkable for instance the u.n protection zones in the former goslami in the early 90s or are irrelevant because the ignorant problems such as the munich agreement of 1930 aid which did nothing to stop hitler’s war preparation so such agreements risked damaging the perception of potential probability in the worst case scenario also multilateral negotiations that tactically misuse the smoke screens to conceal unilateral power politics and uh of course the disadvantages of multilateralism can be mitigated perhaps even eliminated by appropriate procedures as well as the parties involved behave constructively in a way to compromise essentially for getting there is wise and effective political leadership and their literacy tasks including structures that advancing the agenda with a group achievement effective results ensuring that the clients are met and that progress is made as quickly as possible in this context it becomes clear that even a foreign policy that is consistently multilateral in orientation but also times incorporate a unilateral action above all intensive bilateral diplomas in order to make effective multilateral is more possible so in general it is difficult to imagine how coalitions could be successfully fought so surprises without overcoming negotiation processes without intense bilateral diplomacy however bilateralism is certainly problematic for multilateral diplomacy when it is not treated as a component of good multilateralism but rather as an alternative treat this must be a consensus about the normative foundations and we all know about also united nations challenges um because while the european union is considered to be the almost perfect example of regional harmony the united nations is the best example of global multilateralism uh which still has its flaws it is seen as a work in progress in 2020 celebrated 75 years uh it’s a so-called second experiment after the failure of the league of nations and represents the latest attempt at the national corporation to save the succeeding generation for the spirit of war um uh as it rose from the assets of the second world war the united nations was sidelined due to the usa soviet rivalry however after the fall of the soviet union the united nations managed to assume a vital role in the national security uh have managed to work to maintain the national peace and security in a very complex reality uh what threatens global security nowadays are not traditional security threats while the united nations lists many success over this topic and if the organization is not able to adapt it will face an existential crisis um and despite the united nations such as the conflict in syria and north korean aggressiveness um and what about poverty fantasy uh we can see that that it had compended a strong impact on the national diplomacy um became clear that global cooperation central to deal with the socio-economic effects of global health crisis and also uh we have seen how it had impacted the work of diplomatic force diplomatic adapter working methods and of course to organize many uh distant virtual meetings in the world uh this award-winning conventions of the foreign policy have significantly changed and uh uh of course they can’t replace interfaith in persian meetings and diplomas it’s difficult but they need to adapt a new uh normal uh so uh what we need we have to um humanity needs a wake-up call obviously we need to meet theory with practices uh and uh above all to change our mindset thank you very much for your attention if you have any questions thank you thank you very much it was a very informative discussion and you discussed about everything the historical background and pros and cons you know the good part and what are the challenges also so it was a very informative presentation so if anyone would like to ask any question they are more than welcome uh either they can write in the chat box or they can ask directly from mranmu i think i think no one wanted to ask any kind of question because everything is very much clear to the participants also and it was a very informative presentation and thank you very much for your you know joining us on a very short notice because i discussed with you that you know we are having some emergency situation and our speaker was you know he was uh very busy so that is why thank you very much for joining miss rania and thanks to all the participants and uh thanks listen army uh for joining our session and she is from azerbaijan and she is you know her organization is cooperating with us uh you know cooperating with youth diplomatic forum and thanks to all participants also and we are ending up our session here and good luck everyone see you in next session thank you very much you
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Diplomacy course/session 3. Multilateral Diplomacy

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