Statecraft in Modern China: From Sun Yat-sen to the New Silk Road

Statecraft in Modern China: From Sun Yat-sen to the New Silk Road

[Music] she [Music] ending so welcome everyone for this week’s edition of the rising tide foundation lecture we’ve had the pleasure of listening to many many presentations and in this current uh movement we have been uh following up on the theme of a dialogue of east and west to get to a better understanding of the principles that unite all mankind east and west especially at a time when there is just so much work being put into breaking up and schisming people’s minds around coldwear cold war lines of thinking of us versus them and increasingly a lot of the people who be are increasing who are i guess somewhat savvy to the existence of certain top-down manipulations that aim to profoundly change for the worse human civilization um there’s been a susceptibility that i i think all of us here have been have encountered and have been a variety of ways frustrated with which has led a lot of very good people to believe that ultimately the arch enemy of western civilization and mankind is china china is the heart of evil and many good people many good people have uh fallen for many of these psyops these narratives that have just been spread all over the zeitgeist um there’s a lot of fallacies but it largely comes down to the susceptibility to i think falling for this comes down to not understanding um the dynamics of universal history that brought us to where we are today and by not understanding or appreciating some of those more subtle long-term dynamics there uh people fall prey to this um so today i am very happy that we’re following up on last week’s presentation that was delivered by uh dr david wang who introduced some wonderful uh insights into the forgotten part of american history specifically the chinese influence and inspiration of confucian ideas on people like benjamin franklin and other founding fathers and today i think that the gestalt the idea is going to take on new form in a very very fun way with quan who has done an incredible amount of work on geopolitics and history and cultures and it’s just a pleasure to listen to quan develop insights on all sorts of topics like this and today he’s going to carry forth this idea of the new silk road and where it comes from what are the traditions that are being expressed and how does a certain figure named sunyat sen play into much of this and why does this matter for today’s world so quan with that i leave it to you thank you matt and thank you everyone to be present on my presentation today so today the presentation will be on china but once modern china statecraft from sun yat-sen to the band and wrote initiative my presentation would be articulated around seven names seven state men and i would start with the actual president president xi jinping and i wouldn’t finish with the actual president president xi jinping so those seven men are president xi jinping x-i for the for his family name president xing tao hu sun wan the founding father of the republic of china in january 1st 1912. is better known in the west with his cantonese name which is chiang kai-shek mao zedong dang xiaoping chiang zaming those are the seven men which will be these the spine of my presentation so to speak so as i said i want to begin with president xi jinping president xi jinping was born on june 15 1953 so he’s 68 years old today and i want to talk about his concept which is the concept of the modern chinese development or if you want the development that is with chinese characteristic for a new era or better said chinese socialism or socialism with chinese characteristics for a new era okay most of the time many people in the west are asking themselves what does china want okay if i’m a reader of many western think tank and i would say that most of the question can be subsumed under the question what does china want and the main reason why i started with president xi jinping is because he answered to that question what does china won in 14 points and those 14 points have been enshrined in the prc people’s republic of china execution in march 11 2018 and it’s called socialism with chinese characteristics for a new era so i want to take the times to enumerate all the 14 points because if you only remember those 14 points i would be extremely satisfied and i have done my job so the first point of that program is ensuring the chinese party the communist party of china leadership over all forms of work in china so the first and most important element is the leadership of the cpc the chinese the communist party of china here i would i just want to mention a small thing most people have the tendency to say the ccp okay the chinese communist party but the right form is the cpc the communist party of china the second point is the cpc should take a people-centric approach to the public governance so one leadership of the cpc two the people is at the center three the continuation of comprehensive deepening of reforms four adopting new science based ideas for innovative coordinated green open share development five following socialists with chinese characteristics with the people as the masters of the country so that the 0.5 is a reinforcement of 0.2 0.6 governing china would rule of law 0.7 to practice socialist core values including marxism communism and socialism with chinese characteristics here i would like to make a comment on communist china often in the west the expression communist china is meant to create an image of an evil nation or an evil state evil government you would be very surprised that in the mind of the chinese elite ruling class and intelligent intelligentsia communist or communism is the end stage of a long development meaning that a communist state is an ideal state where there will be broadly love between the citizens of that state and the chinese elite doesn’t have the pretension to have a communist state in present day okay so that’s the they call their regime as so socialism with chinese characteristic because the communism or the communist state is only a far away ideal not yet achieved so i go on with the eighth point improving people’s livelihood and well-being is the primary primary goal of development so 0.2.5.8 reinforce each other 0.9 to coexist well with nature energy conservation and environment environmental protect protection policies and contribute to global ecology safety or ecological safety point nine to strengthen the national security of china point uh that’s point ten sorry eleven the cpc is the absolute leader of the people’s liberation army point 12 the policies of one country two systems concerning hong kong macau and eventually reunification on national reunification with taiwan point third so uh for those who have any doubt about the intention of mainland china to take back taiwan point 12 stated very clearly that taiwan will be taken back one day point 13 and that is a very important point china will create a peaceful international environment in order to be in friendly relation with all the people of the world point 14 improve the communist party of china discipline because the communist party of china is the tool to strengthen the chinese nation in order to have the power to offer to the world a safe peaceful environment with win-win collaboration and mutual friendly uh work together for mutual prosperity and share common destiny and the last point 14 point last but not least of course because the discipline inside the cpc and its capability to perform of course is at the core of the capabilities of the chinese nation inside china and outside china you probably noticed that in the codes of arms of the chinese of these prc the people’s republic of china you have a big star at the top and four smaller stars around that big star the big star symbolized the cpc the communist party of china the four smaller star symbolized the four groups of chinese people meaning the workers and the peasants the inter the intellectual or the intelligentsia the industrialists and the soldiers so those four group of chinese people that and those four groups exist in every nations of the world but in the case of china it’s the communist party of china that is the coordinating factor for the common good and for working together and i would i said that if you only remember those 14 points i would be very happy because it’s truly the core of modern chinese statecraft but it has been enshrined in the people’s republic of china constitution three years ago and it’s called the xi jinping thoughts on socialism with chinese characteristics for a new era and what does he mean by for a new era a new era meaning an era that would be mostly defined by international cooperation open paradigm and uh [Music] the downgrading of oligarchical system the other major framework ideological framework or intellectual framework or philosophical framework for the chinese state is what president hujin tao who was the paramount leader for china between 2002 and 2012 offered also enshrined in the chinese con constitution and is called a concept for scientific development what does he mean by a concept for scientific development i will read the general statement okay humanism is at the center of the scientific development concept the people-oriented concept is to take the interest of the people as the starting point and end point of all work to continuously meet people’s multifaceted needs and promote the overall development of the people and here i would like to make a link with the ancient chinese philosophy the first word of the what i just read is humanism chinese humanism use the same concept than truth goodness and beauty as we can see in plato’s philosophy and i think that you all know that symbol well truth you have to imagine truth as the emptiness okay because truth is something foundational it cannot be seen okay it’s not manifest so imagine utter evacutee as the simple truth after that you have goodness which is symbolized by the circle and after you have beauty okay truth is beauty and those are the three fundamental philosophical tenets of chinese philosophy for the reality of the universe and for the reality of political constructions but it has almost also a consequence in asia in china in general those societies are understood as very hierarchical societies that hierarchy is rooted in natural laws and that natural law started with truth goodness and beauty and i would use since i’m speaking to westerners i would use plato vocabulary to make you understand okay what is true in the universe is also true in the universe of human organization so truth correspond to the philosopher king goodness correspond to the aristocrats or if i might remember you the aristocrats are people having the level of awareness that would push them to develop knowledge and creativity so an aristocrat in chinese philosophical thinking or political thinking is a ruler motivated by the development of knowledge and creativity and beauty correspond to the democrats and i would like to rema to remind you that a democrat is a ruler motivated by honor and of course under that you have the plutocrats who are rulers motivated by prophets i don’t want to go further because last time i developed in details what i mean from the philosopher king to the oculocrites meaning mob row so in an hexagram the top three lines represent the philosopher king the aristocrat the themocracy and the three lower lines in an exogram having six lines you have the plutocrats the team across the stage the lower democrat meaning the democrat believing that justice is only a convention because the true democrat team of justice for him is honored so the three lower line lower democrat the plutocrat and the democrat the oppocrats being simply the mob row mean there is no order at all is not cons even considered in the hexagram representation okay so after that parenthesis of ancient philosophy i would like to come back to president hujingtao a concept of scientific development i read the general statement but now i would like to keep on with the details that concept for scientific development in in the first point is economic development and economic development mean improvement of the material living but also the control living standards and the health standards okay if you don’t have a healthy body you cannot have a good economy obviously the second point is human rights of the citizens and it includes political rights economic rights and cultural rights the third point is about personal development and that’s very interesting because i was speaking of the exogram reflecting the journey of awareness and of the development of the mind that mentality coming from ancient china is enshrined in the contemporary political chinese statecraft and what is personal development is the people’s ideological and moral quality it’s also the people’s scientific and cultural quality and finally the people’s health quality and health care is on not only physical health but also psychological mental health obviously and finally the fourth point to create a social environment where people develop equally and give full play to their intelligence okay i’m not saying that the chinese government succeeded in creating an aristocratic government to be true i consider them democratic okay they better than plutocrats in my understanding they are democrats they room for the honor of china of the honor of the chinese people and the honor of the chinese civilization i think there are some aristocrats among them but i don’t think they own aristocrats okay but this last fair this last sentence at least on the ideal dimension they want to be aristocratic they want to give full play to the intelligence of the chinese people and i remind you that aristocrats are rulers motivated by the development of knowledge and creativity and from here i would like to make a jump a hundred years back to son one son one is better known as sanjat sen which is the cantonese form of his name so i will keep on to say sun yat-sen from now because he’s well known in the west by his cantonese name so sanjat sen was born in 1866 and he died on march 2025 1925. sunwen is the father of the founding father of the chinese republic and i want to start with something very practical what is known in the west as a mao suit in chinese in china either mainland taiwan hong kong macau or for the the oversea chinese the mouse suit is called chongshan foo and it’s mean the jacket of mr chong chan chong shan is the courtesy name of sanjat sen okay so it was uh with the direction or the description of sun yat-sen that a taylor named tien created what is called in the west the mouse suit and why do i want to talk about a piece of garment here when i want to talk about statecraft because that jacket is the symbol of modern chinese statecraft okay so one two three four five okay one the back of the jacket it in one piece okay because some of the some stein of jacket you would have a separation at the bottom okay but if you look at at the mouth suit the back is only in one piece and that one piece symbolizes the chinese unity and peace inside china two the color of the mouse suit have two flaps and those two flaps is a very strict style and that strict style represents the good governance of china you have three buttons at the cuff okay and those three buttons represent one minsu means national sovereignty two ming chuan chu yi it means the rights of the people or the power of the people better translate the power of the people and third ming seong jo yi meaning the livelihood of the people or the welfare of the people okay those are the three principles of the people by sunday attend and for the last century the idea of all chinese government has been uh dictated by those three principles i don’t mean that they all succeeded to achieve those principles but on the theoretical basis those are three tenets which guide all chinese government four the four pockets okay so this pocket is the justice this pocket is li yi meaning rituals but it’s not only rich it’s not mindless rituals but understanding of deep metaphysical principle truth goodness beauty this pocket is for uh integrity or honor it’s better translated as honor and this pocket is for honesty okay so four major virtues for governance and finally the five front front buttons represent the five uh divisions of government the first one is the acme administration the second one is the legislation the third one is the judiciary system the fourth one is the examination system and finally the fifth one is the supervision system so sanjaya sen contributed on the theoretical level to the chinese government but also on the practical level so i wanted to use the mouse suit of the chongshan foo the jacket from mr chongshan as a basis to present these principles now i want to name some practical realization from sanyatsen he started the 1911 revolutions because they are two chinese revolution 1911 and 1949. those two revolutions are one organic one but in two phases if you want the first quantum uprising happened in 1895 it fell the sec the second uprising not in guangzhou but in hucho in 1900 also fell and when the 1911 revolution succeeded was not in china he was in the united states but uh his uh his sidekicks informed him and he came back to china for december 1911 to be named the first president of the chinese republic on january 1st 1912. what is amusing that is that the last imperial dynasty the qing dynasty was still ruling when sanjayatsan was promoted to be the president of china and uh the last empress dao wadger the empress dowager long you signed the application act of the qing dynasty a month later on february 12 19 and 12 ending thus 21 centuries of imperial rule in china there are many things that i can talk about sun yat-sen in term of his uh practical accomplishment but i don’t want to go too much in the details because you can have those details by going uh by looking on wikipedia for example i want to to give a tribute to his brother sunway because his brother uh owned a ranch in hawaii and that ranch was almost 50 square kilometers or 12 000 acres if you want and his brother sunway sold the most of that ranch in order uh to finance some yatsen revolutionary uh achievement so i wanted to name his brother which is not very often named uh in his uh uh revolutionary endeavor the other thing i want to name for the sun yat-sen that he took a very major decision in 1923 uh it was january 26 1923 he met with the bonsai diplomat adam for your faith and they sign what is called in history the son joffe memorandum on the better side the son joffe manifesto it was at that time that sun yat-sen which was the leader of the coming time accepted the communists because it was the condition from moscow in order to give ads and advices to the newly founded coming dang and it it has a very practical result which is the foundation of the wampua military academy on an island of guangzhou which is better known in english at canton city and that wampua military academy will create the most of the nationalist officers edu on the qingtang side or the communist side for example the first director general of the coming tongue watching better known by his cantonese name of chiang kai-shek and the political commissar of that one poor military academy was cho unlike the prime minister of china under mao zedong so at the beginning there was a deep interconnectedness between the nationalist faction and the communist faction and it’s not a surprise that sanjat sen is the only chinese state man that is equally admired on both sides of the taiwan straits and i want to finish my short presentation of sanjat said by reading an excerpt of his speech on the inauguration day of the wampuah military academy one po is written w h a m p o a the true chinese name is huang poo but in english and in french it’s better known as the wampua academy and is on an island offshore of canton city so on the inauguration day on june 16 1924 sanjatsan made a memorable speech and i will only read some lines to you now i start our aim shouldn’t be to found a free land warrant peace and be on our stand lead on comrades vanguard you are hold fast you aim be sun be star be earnest be brave you country to save one heart one song one mind one goal and it’s still the heritage of the communist party of china that speech has been made on june 16 1924 so it has been made almost a century ago and it’s still valid and let’s not forget that the communist party of china just celebrated last month it’s 100 year anniversary also and we have here the 87 anniversary of that famous speech lead on comrades vanguards you are home fast you aim be sun be star be earnest and brave your country to save and it’s still valid from now i would like to go to president mao zedong because of course with mao zedong there would not be the new china of course mao zedong was born on december 26 1893 and died on september september 9 1976. he was most important for china because he understood the new century but at the same time he understood the chinese characteristics he understood deeply that china cannot be liberated by the standard marxism as in marxism the people are mostly industrial workers but in china there were not many industrial workers at the beginning of the 20th century so he had to galvanize to wake up to stimulate to to give enthusiasm to the mass of chinese peasants in order for china to liberate herself and i think that it was the essential contribution of mao zedong himself the son of a peasant obviously some biographical steps so he was born in 1893 he stayed with his family still his university days he decided to be a teacher so he went to the kunan normal school and he graduated in 1921 and he sorry i’m i made a mistake he graduated in 1919 at 26 years old and he was the third of his promotion and he was very active in the philosophical political literary circles of the hunan capital of the time changsah which is the name of the hunan capital one of his teacher well the main person influencing his life and also his father-in-law professor yang chang ji yang y-a-n-g born 1871 and died in 1928 he was a major chinese philosopher of his time and he recognized mao as someone outstanding and here we have a very typical chinese history if i may say so a member of the gentry recognized a peasant of exceptional star talent and of outstanding charisma okay like 2000 years before the same happened to liu bang the founder of the 400 years han dynasty seven centuries seven centuries before the stem happened to chu yuan chang the peasant founder of the ming dynasty so for a reader of chinese history the meeting between professor yang and mao zedong was something called a predestined meeting because professor yang a member of the gentry gave mao zedong the education and the refinement that he lacked he even sponsored him in the complicated social life in beijing and he even introduced him to chong to shu one of the two founders the chinese of the communist party of china may i remind you that the first congress of the communist party of china happened in july 23 and ended in july 3 30 1921 the official date in china nowadays to celebrate the anniversary of the communist party of china is july 1st but to be exact it has been founded between july 23 and july 30th 1921. so mao was one of the 13 delegates present during that week and the two founders chung tu su chung c-h-a-n and lita ciao li l-i were not present and of the 13 delegates present at the first congress only two survived in 1949 which is the year of the founding of the people’s republic of china in 1921 there were about 50 people who were members of the communist party of china and on july 1st 2021 at the 100th at the 100th anniversary of the cpc there were 95 million 148 000 members i would like to remind you that the population of germany is about 80 million the population of france is about 68 million and the population of the uk is about 65 million and the communist party of china has 95 million 148 000 members and you have to understand that those 95 million people have connection within their family their friends and their colleagues okay meaning that the communist party of china represent probably five to six times that numbers meaning that the communist party of china is going deep into chinese society because we can estimate that between 600 and 700 million people have a direct connection to the communist party of china meaning half of china population which is a thousand four hundred million people as you know so i would like to say now because i don’t want to forget it there’s an excellent uh presentation by eric lee which is a capitalist venturer and [Music] political scientist from england china it’s called a tales of two systems it’s last about 20 minutes or 25 minutes and i think it’s the most synthetic video on what is the communist body of china and it explained in a few words the meritocratic system of china i would like also to mention the theory of uh short videos in three to ten minutes by professor chang weiwei chang zed h-a-n-g weiwei w-e-i-w-e-i from fudan university in shanghai and that serie is called the chinese way and it’s another excellent set of videos explaining clearly what is the communist party of china um what i would like to mention about mao zedong is that in 1927 he tried to conquer the city of changsha but he failed to do so and august 1st 1927 is the date of foundation of the people’s liberation army in in relation to that incident called the autumn harvest uprising after his failure in 1927 he would go east in the province called jiang si and between 1927 and 1934 he wouldn’t be the leader of a soviet uh government called the jiangxi soviet government or to be precise the ching kung shan mountain soviet government and for the people who don’t know why 1934 is an important moment while be informed that 1934 or october 1934 is the beginning of the famous long march and about 10 000 people started from the soviet in jiangxi province in southeast china to trying to escape the nationalist government of chiang kai-shek and finishing in north west province chancey in the yan and base the next year in october 1935 and at the start they were about 10 000 and at the finish line they were somewhere between 6 000 or 8 000. so 90 of them died during that odyssey and i would say that it’s one of the defining moment of the communist party of china and between 1935 to 1949 it would be the headquarters of the communist party of china in its struggle again the degenerate bourgeois government by chiang kai-shek and the war of resistance against fascism and the japanese aggression which is the chinese name for the second world war and the war of resistance against fascism and japanese aggression started in 1937 so two years before the european world war and ended in 1945 and from 1945 to 1946 there was a short period of truth between the nationalists and the chinese communist party the civil war restarted in 1946 ending with the victory of the communist party of china on january 1st 1949 when the communist troops entered beijing and with the declaration of the people’s republic china on 10 million men where on october 1st 1949 i think that i would like to limit myself uh about maze down those elements for now i’m perfectly aware that i’m far from covering all what is important concerning mao zedong but i want to leave time for question and interactions of course afromauser doll the outstanding person in the chinese contemporary history is of course don xiaoping and tong xiaoping of course was born in 1904 and died in february 1997 and i would like to mention some important moments in those famous reforms the reform started in december 1978. in march 1981 dung gave the power to decide to the local people for the agriculture and it’s very important because from then on people were stimulated to produce more because their profits would be according to their performance at the end of 1983 the land still are collective property however you have family exploitation with rewards according to the performance so if you work harder you will have bigger reward the industrial reform was essentially from 1980 to 2000 and there you have the famous special economic zones and the first of all of them of course is shenzhen or but i would pronounce shenzhen so everyone will understand shenzhen was a fission village in the beginning of the 80s and now it’s a metropolis with more than 10 million people and a hub of technology and transportation uh what i want to mention too it does most people think that the major event opening the 20th century is 9 11. but i beg to differ okay the major element opening the 20th century is not 9 11. it’s 12 11 2001 okay because of 11 on december 11 2001 china has been admitted to the world trade organization and i think that’s the defining moment to open the 21st century and not 9 11. if i may say so i prefer to see 9 11 as the closing event of the 20th century and 12 11 as being the opening event of the 21st century and to keep on with reforms between 2001 and 2021 meaning now it’s more the investment phase and i want to mention the plan made in china 2025 which has been promoted in 2015. uh there’s one president that is not very m that is a little bit in the shadows of mao zedong and tungs xiaoping who is president chiang za mean president mean was uh the secretary secretary general of the communist party of china between 1989 to 2002 but he was under the shadows of tong xiaoping who died in 1997 but he’s very important for china too and there’s a guy called lawrence kuhn k-u-h-n who wrote a very interesting book and hate on him i also want to mention the book by ezra vogel e-z-r-a-vargo v-o-g-e-l on tung-xiaoping so president xiang was important because he accepted the people having capitals and the big industrialist in china to be uh when come into the communist party of china and i think it was an important step because for china to go from a backward agricultural country to an industrial and technological country it was important to have a reconciliation conciliation with the capitalists and with the intellectuals even if they have to understand that they are not above the people and i would like to give the very recent example of jack ma jagma is a kind of chinese plutocrats okay and i think that he fantasized to be part of the global plutocrats and lately the team from beijing sent him a very clear and stirred message that he is accepted as a plutocrat inside the chinese system but he that is a bit far-fetched from him to fantasize that he’s above the government so i think that it was a clear and swift message sent to ma and to all the plutocrats in china fantasizing to overstep the government beijing and contrary to the country to the spin doctors in the west jagma has not been sent to a concentration camp he was simply relaxing in his mansion in hangzhou for three months and he enjoyed perfectly his life in his beautiful and magnificent mansion in hangzhou so so for those who were worried about him is in perfect health and accepted again among the chinese elite speaking of the chinese elite and of the western elite there is i think that some of you probably read the book by graham allison from harvard university and it’s called china it’s called is china no no no it’s called the nesting for war it has been published in 2017 and the concrete title is destined for war can america and china escape two cds tri what is interesting in this book wow there are many interesting things in this book but i want to read you two excerpts from dick’s book and i think that it’s very true because uh uh even if there are many spin spin doctors and prostitute in the west there are many gentlemen too in the west and graham allison is one of these gentlemen meaning a a an educated people working for world peace and not spinning the narrative for war anything that graham allison understand both the west and the east and i would like to read what graham allison understand as western value okay quote the us is a missionary nation derived from the belief that the non-western nations should submit to the western values of democracy free market limited government human rights individualism the rules of law and should embody those values in their institutions okay and of course now what graham allison says about chinese values quote the value of authority the subordination of individual individual rights and interests the importance of consensus and avoidance of confrontation saving face and in general the supremacy of the state over society and individual very interesting because i think he’s right okay once again truth goodness duty okay the philosopher king the aristocrats the democrats meaning that in the chinese east asian society there is a natural hierarchy that is acknowledged and if you want to have the honor to roll you have to demonstrate that you are on the way to be at least a democrat if not an aristocrat or philosopher kings it doesn’t mean that the people who are deemed to be lower are oppressed but they don’t have the responsibilities of the democrats the aristocrats and the philosopher king because they are not considered to have the mind development and the level of awareness that makes them worthy to roll and the plutocrats are certainly not worthy to row they are worthy to participate to the subsidy obviously but they are not worthy to row and graham alison at page 140 of his book created a a not a diagram but some concepts and make a comparison between the us and china by the u.s you can understand the west in general of course so let’s say a comparison between the west and china on nine items okay so i read the items and i will give first the western understanding and second the chinese or eastern asian understanding first the self-perception of the us is to be the number one the self-perception of china is to be the center of the universe so quite pretentious on both sides i like that very much that alison put that very clearly so the cuber is not only on one side the hubris is on both sides second core value on the us the core values of course is freedom on the chinese side the core value is harmony or cosmos or order the view of government for the u.s the governed the government is a necessary evil for the chinese is unnecessary good the form of government for the u.s is the democratic republic and for the chinese is a responsive or responsible authoritarianism the exemplar for the us for the west is to be missionary and the example for chinese is to be inemitable the attitude toward foreigners for the for the west is to be inclusive and for the chinese is to be exclusive on that point i don’t agree but that’s okay that’s what graham allison said because the chinese can be very inclusive towards foreigners if they are respectful of their culture the time horizon for the u.s is now and the time horizon for the chinese is eternity on this point also i disagree because the anglo-american establishment is very capable to have plans over decades and centuries so to say that the anglo-american establishment is only capable to be on the in the now it’s not true okay it’s the facade but on facade the anglo-american establishment is perfectly capable to plan for decades and for centuries and same for the chinese obviously on the on the item of change in the west it’s invention and for the chinese is restoration and evolution and on that point i disagree too because i think that both for the west and for china invention restoration and evolution are three appropriate descriptions and in terms of foreign policy for the west is international order and for china is higher rock and also i disagree on that fourth point and last point for alison because for the west there’s international order but also a hierarchy in which the west is at the top and for china there is also the design for international order and in the past for china at the top or maybe now china is more reasonable china is willing to have a win-win corporation not necessarily with china at the top but among the top five which is the case anyway because china is part of the five permanent permanent members of the security council of the united nations organization the five being china russia the us france and the uk of course and uh i wanted to talk about this because i think that it’s truly interesting even if it’s not on china precisely but it’s uh on china and the west which is very very important obviously now i was i was speaking very much for the first hour about plenty of principles and of tenets of statecraft but i absolutely want to take the next 10 to 15 minutes to talk about practical achievements from the chinese government in 1949 when mao zedong entered beijing the expectancy of the chinese people was 35 years old okay 35 in 1949 now the expectancy is 77 the life expectancy in the u.s i think is 78 or 79 and the life expectancy in cuba is 80. so it’s quite good 77. the literacy rate when mao zedong entered beijing in 1949 was something around 20 percent the literacy rate in 19 sorry in 2018 was almost 97 on the national average of course it’s mean a hundred percent for the new generation and for the urban dweller of course and i would like to remember to remind all of you that the central notion of chinese statecraft either ancient times or contemporary times is the mandate of heaven tian meaning the mandate of heaven is as long as the rulers are capable to perform they are worthy to roll and what is to perform to perform means to give order food and education to the people order food education to the people so that’s why i gave the numbers for the life expectancy meaning food and health care and education that’s the call of the mandate of heaven and last number i want to mention when mao zedong entered beijing in 1949 the chinese population was around 550 million six years after death in 1982 the chinese people were at 1 billion and now they are at 1.4 billion another thing that i want to mention before i forget what is socialism with chinese characteristic okay if someone asks you what is socialism with chinese characteristic the long answer is to mention the 14 points by xi jinping that’s the long answer but if you don’t remember the long answer just say 70 percent of properties are private in china and 30 of the properties in china is state property okay that’s socialism with chinese characteristics the chinese middle class which is around 400 to 450 million people most of them have their own house and many of them have more than one houses and i repeat 70 percent of properties in china are private properties that’s socialism with chinese characteristic and i repeat the second time communist china in the mind of the elite of the chinese elite is a far away broadly society that we don’t have yet and we need to work to achieve that broadly society in the future china is not communist china is socialist with the goal of a communist society in the future now i want to mention some practical achievements okay of course you all know the name of the company huawei xiaomi limo oppo vivo wasting sinawei mo etc but i also want to mention the moon landing on the hidden phase in 19 in 2019 the fact that there is the second space chinese space station working now with three astronauts or three dike nods because the chinese name for astronauts is taikonauts they are in a mission starting in june and they will come back to earth in september this year i want to mention the experiment advance at advanced tokamak which is the artificial sun for fusion energy by china i also want to mention the galaxy super computers i also want to mention the pay tau satellite navigation system and the last satellite has been sent in june or july if i remember [Music] let me check because i want to give you the exact okay okay the last one has been sent in 2020 and now it’s fully operational and it’s the equif it’s the chinese equivalent of the gps for those who don’t who don’t know what pai tao which is the chinese gps and i want to mention the road initiative of course start in 2013 with the eurasian land bridge finished from shanghai ojiwo to duisburg in germany the two south uh eurasian land bridge which is uh going to the asian con the asean asean countries to the southeast and the pakistani chinese economic corridor to the southwest and the central eurasian land bridge that is now in work because the eastern side is in china but the western side is in syria and the center of that central eurasian land bridge of course is afghanistan and uh it’s a coincidence but today august 15 15 2021 is also the day that kaboom has followed as all of you know that will be the center of the uh central eurasian land bridge um i would like to mention also that they are almost 38 000 kilometers of high-speed train in china now uh with about uh 30 000 in construction so at the end in some years there will be 70 000 kilometers of high-speed trend in china with already already 38 000 in operation 38 000 kilometers in operation now of course you have the asian infrastructures investment bank open for business since january 2016 uh and the headquarters are in beijing you also have the new development banks which is the official name of the brics bank open for business in 2014 and the headquarters are in shanghai you also have the petro yuan who has been created in march 26 2018 because let’s not forget that you have the petrol dollar for now but the petrol dollar has arrival since the last three years march 26 2018 and you also have uh the bri funds and i want to stop here for the different uh practical achievements because we can’t talk on and on but you can go on wikipedia and go to the list of projects by the bank and growth initiatives and i’m quite sure that during the question period i would have probably more time to elaborate on that i just want to take five minutes to finish about another concept related to the mandate of heaven tianming because i just receive the the white paper of the state council information office of the people’s republic china that has been published in august 2021 so this month now the state council is the official name of the chinese prime minister team okay so it’s from the chinese prime minister office the two concept that is related to tian ming the mandate of heaven is siao kang a moderate prosperous society and taton which is the grand harmony a great harmony when i said that the communist society is a far away broadly law of society in the far future it’s staton okay it’s the great harmony but sao kang the moderately prosperous society is what is aiming chinese elite with the concept of uh the chinese socialism socialist chinese characteristic for new era and i would just want to to read you the the titles of five chapters of the white paper by the chinese state council related to the xiaokan concept right uh moderately prosperous society so the first chapter is achieving moderate prosperity and advancing human rights two ending extreme poverty and securing the right to an adequate standard of living and the chinese government announced i think in the first part of this year 2021 the end of extreme poverty in china three boosting human rights with development and securing economic social and cultural rights for protecting civil and political rights with law and governance and phi promoting social equity and protecting the rights of special groups with special groups you understand the greek but also the minorities in china and speaking of minority uh if you are not informed please send me an email i will send you the papers or the link to debunk the western prostitute spinning about the genocide in xinjiang because there is no genocide in xinjiang and i want to name some people on youtube that could be very interesting for you pascal kapangs kapons c-o-p-p-e-n-s cyrus johnson j-e-n nathan rich r-i-c-h daniel dombro d-u-n-b-r-i-l-l daniel bell b-e-n-n jeff j brown of china rising radio seinolan matthew errett of course from rising thai foundation and cynthia from driving thai foundation too of course on youtube professor yang suetong vijay prashad p-r-a-s-h-a-d which is an inter-indian intellectual having a deep understanding of international geopolitics china and india martin jake professor jay is the choir illustrious professor kishore mabubani m-a-b-h-u-b-a-n-i alexander mark mercurus the oracle from london jannis varufakis godfrey roberts and i want to mention two books one written by jeff j brown the big red book on chinese history culture and revolution i think that there’s one book to read to know about contemporary china it’s truly jeff’s book uh the big red book and uh the book by his friend godfrey roberts white china leads the world and its uh talent at the top data at the middle and democracy at the bottom i’m sure that okay maybe uh eric lee of course i already mentioned professor chang weiwei i already mentioned and i want also to mention three economists john ross a british economist having an experience of chinese economy for the last three decades and two american professor michael hudson and professor richard wolff i’m sure that there are many things i did not cover but let’s say that i wouldn’t finish my presentation for today thank you so much quan and uh thank you for including cynthia and myself in that illustrious list uh that you accumulated i would ask if you can um though i did share some of the things you referenced in the chat area i would ask to send me personally a list of all of those names and great links you think that people should follow up on and i’ll put them in the in the description box to this class so people could do some work uh research on their own um so far we’ve opened up for a few questions and the first person to get their name in there was pascal so pascal it’s all yours all right hey thank you quan thanks it was a breathtaking uh lecture really it went fast i tried tried to take notes but uh you were too fast for me um no it’s good it’s good i had a question since you said that you know even though you were on a boat recently uh you you kept in touch with uh geopolitical affairs um you mentioned at the end also uh you know the uh in the belt and road initiatives the uh the southern route uh through pakistan and uh you know the afghanistan and all all this uh this region uh now american troops are getting out and um it i i saw canadian troops are being reinforced in um in afghanistan uh how do you see the situation there what is china going to do about it uh since the taliban are taking uh afghanistan over uh which basically you know it seems like all this war was for nothing um [Music] so um what what yeah i’m just gonna keep it very general you know what do you think about the situation there what’s uh what’s china going to do about it well pascal thank you for your outstanding question because i was expecting one one question about this that this situation uh do you you know that uh the taliban has been the welcome in tianjin in some weeks ago okay so the the strategy of china is not to enter afghanistan the trust the strategy of china is to have economic development and to end the opium or the heroin rat line of the cia as you know uh that’s the two main aims of china which in ending the heroin rat line so cutting the cia funding resources two trying to cooperate with the talibans what will probably be the next government if not the next government one major component of the next government in order to maintain peace in afghanistan and also in china because china doesn’t want the province of xinjiang or i should say the autonomous region of xinjiang to be full of terrorists of course which is the modest operandi of the empire to destabilize their opponents let’s say i don’t want to use the word enemies and three by economical development to bring peace and order to central asia in collaboration of course with china iron border pakistan and with china ally without the name russia iran and hopefully india which are the major neighbors around that corner of the planet i don’t know if my answer is is complete enough for you pass can or you want to dig in more it’s going to be all right for now okay um all right thank you very much for that one uh we have stephen who’s next on the list okay hi stephen hi quan thank you for another wonderful lecture uh my question is kind of more slightly on the philosophical side uh when you describe the mandate of heaven what came to mind was uh cynthia’s lectures on leibniz and the underlying concept of natural law and they they almost seem roughly analogous to one another would you consider that to be true and along that lines when you were describing uh i’ll say socialism with a chinese interpretation that to me sounds remarkably similar to the american founding fathers and the american system of economic approach which course links back to leibniz through vettel so are you seeing sort of uh rough parallels between uh the chinese contemporary thought and the founding american father’s thought well stephen thank you for your question it’s more than a this is more than a haphazard it’s affiliation okay because the three principle of the people by son yat-sen is what were inspired by abraham lincoln and henry carey of the american school of economy and uh as i always promoted confucius and uh and plato are spiritual brothers so it’s more than our approach among stephen it’s simply in the same family of enlightened people and and they’re slightly the slight variances are different cultural takes on the same essential truth than if you will uh absolutely that’s why that’s why i am using the word it’s the same family of enlightened people yeah thank you all right magdalena madeline it’s all yours hi okay hold on there you go okay um thank you that was a wonderful lecture um mike i have two questions and i i want to apologize in beginning i it’s the questions are based on more pragmatic understanding and uh of course because of my own ignorance so uh no fishy facetious is uh intended here at all okay so um you mentioned this um jung jack’s shirt i believe you were using the buttons and the pockets and and so i was curious about this um was is this explanation that used on the shirt is this a common explanation that is used for the population to understand the breakdown of society in china or is this your own [Music] explanation okay what i explain for the five items on the mouse suit or the chong sun fu is this is the standard expedition by sun yat-sen himself and that it has been accepted by the communist party of china okay okay so that okay i can i can’t even stand in our political group on telegram a short video of five minutes explaining all the things okay that would be wonderful okay and then my second question is okay um again coming from ignorance um how do you become a member of the communist party in china okay they are they are two ways okay that too general way if you want to be among the best of the best you’re speaking academically you mean academically yes yes the first the first way you have to be the first of your school of your high school okay at the end of each uh of each promotion uh in canada is segunda okay the u.s is grade 11 i think so at the end of each promotion they would take the first of each high school to be a member of the communist party of china that’s the first way to be a member but not everyone can be the first of his high school of course so a second way to enter the communist party of china is either when you are in college that you don’t have to be the first of your university but you have to be one of the best of your university in your own department uh you can be an outstanding sailor you can be an outstanding sea man you can be an outstanding air man that’s another way you can be an outstanding worker too you don’t have to be an intellectual you have to contribute to the society but you don’t have to be an intellectual you can be an outstanding worker you can be an outstanding peasant you have to contribute to the society one way or another and you have some exams and uh some interview to pass in order to be accepted okay uh if i want to use a platonic terminology you have to prove that you are at least a democrat if not an aristocrat inter in the platonic sense in order to be accepted in the communist party of china and 95 million 148 000 members on 1400 millions people it’s about 6.5 of the population okay and in most population elite the aristocrats in the true sense of aristocrats has always been around five percent okay thank you very much that helps okay we have uh satomi on the list go for it so tell me you’re on you’re on mute by the way stomy well yeah that’s quite a um different uh perspective quantum we thank you for that but i guess i’m a little skeptical because um i i just find it hard that maybe to to really kind of accept that the corruption you know that um there we just like in america we have such a great idea but the actual practical applications uh we are not really you know we had uh use a sort of coup i would say and and it’s hard for me to really accept that china could could uh just not have that kind of you know a deeper corruption and some something that may undermine this whole ideal that’s all i’m wondering what you uh how you feel about that uh well satomiya thank you very much for your question because it’s a very important question of course corruption exists in china obviously i would be completely out of reality if i say that china doesn’t have corruption china has deep corruption that’s why when president xi jinping started his presidency in 2012 he started a campaign against corruption and it gave some resound become more than 1.5 million officials have been arrested and punished and some of them very high ranked and it’s not only because they were his political opponents i want to be very down to earth with you saturn me of course there is a political dimension in that struggle some of those high rank high rank people ranked people sorry who have been arrested were corrupted and were also his political opponents so i don’t deny the down to earth political dimensions obviously and i don’t deny the reality of human corruptions but let’s not forget that in in all government you have the ideal and you have the reality but you if you don’t have an ideal and if you don’t have a pure center if i may say so how would you be capable to deal with the corruption so you have to have a group of true aristocrats that we need to be uber enlightened and uber awakened to check the corruption at each moment that’s obvious that’s a process and i think that your question is perfectly legitimate oh oh thank you yes and and i think as you say that vigilance is so important because look what happened to canada look what happened to america because of the lack of vigilance i believe oh well you know you know you know the sentence power raps and absolute power corrupts absolutely okay you cannot escape that that’s a human reality yeah also one other question because you know i i really have a lot of respect for general michael flynn and he still feels very maybe more that if it could be within america with hollywood and so much of the industries being taken over by by the communists or the chinese do you know anything about that yes well i know general michael flynn because i consider i don’t know him personally but what i know him from the video that i saw with him interview i consider him as one of the american democrats or aristocrats uh but i still think that in the west you you still have honorable people like for example professor graham allison that i read some like excerpts from his book or general michael flynn but the problem is that the plutocratic system in the u.s is so entrenched that i don’t know because of the limited knowledge that i have of the u.s deep state at the only uh absurd command that i can say and it’s not really a command it’s good luck to the american democrats and good luck to the american aristocrats well maybe you know matthew can answer that too i mean i i could i could try him in a word or two but i mean this is a longer uh discussion what i could say though is that um i’ve seen an an immense uh build up of narrative spinning to deflect attention away from the british intelligence causal hand behind global manipulation and a redirection onto the chinese communist party as the source and cause and driver of all evil of the international deep state which ignores the reality which is that you know people like george soros have said that his the biggest threat to his open society just last year is xi jinping’s uh china and donald trump’s usa together those two things have to be destroyed for his open society to work um and he succeeded if you look at all of the role that he played with other figures i won’t go into right now but you know we’ve written and published about that that are all tied to british intelligence which seek to destroy all nations usa china russia all alike um for their own ends um that so that’s what i’m noticing a lot of people like michael flynn um who are following the epoch time sort of uh tempered narrative or you know you’ve got certain trial or you know hearings going on right now around the election fraud a lot of the best people are are really falling for this stuff um so that’s why i i’m really just happy that quan was able to go through and we have time for more questions but i’m really happy that quan was able to go through a lot of this to demystify what is what is china what is its governing structures what are its history and ethics so um yeah there’s a lot of misdirection though i’d say satomi yeah that distraction i i i believe that too yeah thank you man sure so we had uh on the list uh do you have time for a couple more questions quan yes sir sure wonderful all right so we got a couple more people um namely stephen has a follow-up question i believe or a comment that i thought was useful that he wrote down stephen why don’t you you share that okay i’ll just read what i put the chat but it was uh regarding magdalena’s question on how you joined the communist party of china the cpc and uh your answer quan on you know it’s basically the best of the best whether it’s high school or wherever that reminded me of the rhodes scholarship program so you almost have an analogous thing but for evil purposes within the anglosphere in that they identify the most promising future leaders and they pervert them in the west to serve this corrupted cause that maybe they may not even understand the depth of corruption they become involved with uh and i just thought it was an interesting juxtaposition to to think about how the chinese do it uh and embracing on what from my western perspective would seem to be into a chinese interpretation of the american system of economic economics and and natural law versus you know the mandate of heaven so i just i thought it was a wonderful look at them as polar opposites but both seeking to find the best of the best but one for noble intent whereas the other one for ignoble intent exactly exactly because you can uh the how can i say it the key the talents are tools but those tones can be used by virtuous people or by ignoble people and if i can just add one thought that maybe you want to comment on you know when you look at uh much of what matt and cynthia have uh done over the years in terms of uh the universe that carol quickly revealed if i can refer to it at that and your comment that the chinese strategy with regards to afghanistan is cutting off the uh heroin rat line for the cia and or british intelligence thing certainly the chinese must have a very sophisticated understanding of the western corruption uh not just as a an ideological ideological competitor but the the real quantum mechanics of the problems of the west you know if they’re taking a long-term approach to uh hopefully neutralizing afghanistan as a heroin source they must really understand the nature of the corruption that we’re focusing on or sorry that we have to deal with yes stephen i don’t know if you listen okay i think there was a small uh problem of transmission for maybe 20 seconds but i think you’re right the chinese government understand perfectly maybe not perfectly but understand to a certain extent the oligox oligarchical system and its shenanigans yeah okay thank you all right so we have uh next up paula has been waiting to ask her question paula go for it thank you i hope you can hear me i know my connection is not very good uh and if i’m asking a question that it has already been asked i apologize what would it take for the socialist china to achieve the state of communist china and it has been asked already because i missed a few minutes i apologize okay well the communist china is tatang meaning the great harmony harmony meaning that it would be the ideal society okay it would be a society of broadly love meaning that the the material development would be maximum the education would be at the top uh [Music] the communication between people perfect the representation of the people in the government would be perfect there would be no corruption or almost no corruption so communism in the in the head in the mind of the chinese elite is the perfect society so it’s a far away goal and uh finally we’ve got pascal who has been waiting for a follow-up question too so pascal okay yes i have another one um you know you listed you um yeah you used the book uh by um allison i believe yeah where you you addressed the portrait you took from his book uh the the comparison between western and and chinese values uh or different items uh the core values um you know it’s sometimes it’s hard you know to have a discussion with people in the west because we have um a very i think a very strict idea of what democracy is and we put a lot of emphasis on that word whereas it’s not it’s not exactly what um our systems are anyway in uh in the west uh you know in the in the british uh commonwealth countries or even the united states was not created to be uh a democracy that’s that’s just a rhetorical um uh you know buzzwords that are drawn at people to make them feel good but um [Music] i as i understand china you know it’s not just a top-down um you know uh dictatorial system it’s there’s really uh there’s a way that the chinese people can get um you know their demands heard to the you know from the government um do you know a bit about how it functions and how you know it’s it’s a different system than we have here but it’s still something that that that can work exactly thank you for this question pascal because if i can express your question in another way does a civil society exist in china okay and my answer is yes there is a civil society in china and that civilian society uh expresses itself in three ways the first way is the official channel okay in each village a county or city uh you can’t complain uh with the official at the at the office of the government and it’s a very serious thing and it’s part of the supervision system the fifth button of the mile jacket second the internet system uh you know that there are almost a 900 million internet user in china and chinese people will express their complaints and their dissatisfactions to the government through different internet platforms and you have a official that will check those platforms and that will submit reports to the local and the central government about those dissatisfaction and third the central government from beijing itself and the provincial governments when asked the people from time time if they agree with such and such program offered by the government and not forgetting the university and the college that are the cradle of the future elite of course all right thanks very good um all right jerry was able to squeeze in last question so jerry go for it one last question oh good oh thank you very much quan for the education uh i just had a question because i know when in my work when you look at the american revolution that we call it now at the time the people in america didn’t call it the american revolution they called it the war for independence okay yes they wanted freedom yes they wanted democracy but it was a war for independence from the british empire and i was just wondering in china what we could call the chinese revolution with sun yat-sen you know what what do they consider that a war for you know getting rid of the uh imperial system and what was established first with sun yat-sen and later uh with mao and the communist party but in china what do they consider that change to be okay i hope i’m clear yeah no your question is crystal clear for sun yat-sen there were three goals first to get rid of the chinese empire to get rid of the imperial system to establish the first chinese republic and to give lands to the chinese peasants okay because in the mind of the average chinese person at the time having land meaning having the means to create your food is the first step to personal freedom okay and most of the peasant under the emperor system were under the thumb of landlords and those landlords were from the nobility or from uh the officials okay
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Statecraft in Modern China: From Sun Yat-sen to the New Silk Road

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