The Ceaseless Limited-wars of Early-modern Europe … and the Jews Part I (Part 2)

The Ceaseless Limited-wars of Early-modern Europe … and the Jews Part I (Part 2)

welcome tonight today’s tuesday the second of a six part maybe more lecture series the name of the series i’m doing this june is jews and war calculations miscalculations and catastrophes tonight is the second lecture entitled the ceaseless limited wars of early modern europe and the jews so let me begin by saying that picking up for what we did last time for about a thousand years which is a long time the jews took a break from war and military affairs by that i mean they had no power no political or cultural power power i say the jews were passive bystanders while european christians and muslims constantly ward against each other for their own reasons then involve the the crusades for example it’s not a jewish thing right basic to the jews position in law in those days was as i’ve always said to be of service and own sufferance in the words of the jews wherever they were a tiny helpless minority military actually was not in the cards they actually had to leverage their helplessness in order to gain tolerance to be able to live in christian or muslim societies which theologically by definition are hostile jews and judaism therefore they are not involved in any wars the only reason the jews are allowed to live anywhere in the middle ages if they’re if they’re perceived as being of service helping the economy and own sufferings which means you’re really here on my total toleration uh and you’re helpless anytime i want to i can kick you out and happen over and over again the jews were expelled perfectly legally from one place after another over the course of the middle ages the basic jewish survival strategy obviously then was to be zero security threat through cultural renunciation of military force so rashi toasted the rabbit there they have nothing to do with the with the fighting with the military now there is exceptions there are always exceptions the exceptions prove to rule obviously the most remarkable exception to what i just said in the thousand years in the middle ages would be the famous and remarkable schmuelhan nagit uh but that was unique so here we’re dealing with somebody who as you can see was a big rabbi one of the biggest we’ve shown him a big communist russia shiva also a master poet one of the great poets and the golden age of jews in spain uh also a prime minister of an arab country also the head of the cia and fbi and i kid you not and also secretary of defense i’m not finished and commander-in-chief of the arab armies which fought other arab armies in the international wars of 11th century spain so he was among other things the commander-in-chief of the arab army of granada and i if i remember correctly he had like 40 battles and he won them all he’s one of those rare generals that didn’t lose and being a master poet we have a lot of war poems look at what you have in front of you even if you can just read the english hassus the horses he’s describing a battle lunge back and forth like vipers uh out of their nest you know you charge in a raid you pull back arab style come in and pull out like a like a viper killer avira veera the hurled spears were like bolts of lightning filling the air with light so here he is in a battlefield with arrows and spears flying all over the place right and he goes arabs pelted like raindrops the arrows are falling down like raindrops as if our shields were sieves and their strong bows as he their bows were like serpents each stinging forth a bee every time you shoot an arrow it’s like you it hits you you feel like gets stung by a bee and it’s all these vivid kind of a descriptions look what he says the swords above their heads these are arab armies fighting each other like glowing torches blood flowed on the ground like the blood of rain and it turns to the air and still my gallant troops scorned their lives the cuts became they know they didn’t mind dying in battle preferring heroic deaths on the battlefield so you don’t usually find rashi or the rambam or the ramban or the raja writing like this but he was on their level and he’s most unusual now that’s why i find it very interesting that he wrote a poem that could have written by general sherman basically war’s health uh look what he writes cro and remember he led many armies in many battles krav dhoma brochure fia ashir but in the end war is a repulsive hag who sutures a weapon an ache notice the classic literary theme what price glory you go off towards all glorious when you get in the battlefield you cease the opposite but this is the exception as they said he was unique more typically spanish jews particularly in the second half of the jewish experience in spain what we call history is using christian spain i’m talking about the 1200s the 1300s and 1400s got involved in the logistics side of war not in the fighting the business side of war so jews in spain and castile and aragon were into the production of medieval munitions and raising the vast sums needed by rulers in conducting diplomacy between the warring armies notice the non-fighting side of war that got jews these skills which this fire redeemed the spanish jews honed earned them status in the spanish peninsula in niberia and nowhere else so you find jewish ministers in the government or something like that and makar is at the court in a way that’ll be inconceivable outside of spain and france and germany and england with a pariah you understand but that’s because spain was a constant war of 800 years called reconquista between the christians and the muslims and the state of war produced military necessity in which case pragmatism trumped a prejudice and this is a theme i’m going to be dealing with tonight because they were a harbinger of the future the middle ages ends around the late 15th century something like that there’s nothing hard to face these are conventions why they call it the end of middle ages well a number of significant changes kick in for example you get the renaissance and humanism so uh you have the new art with michelangelo the humanistic writings of somebody like erasmus that’s a huge difference culture change you get the protestant reformation with this uh hillary over here with martin luther who as you know shattered the the monopoly of the catholic church and introduced a whole set of new ideas you have most importantly at all perhaps the technological breakthrough the new technology which uh is a remarkable part of the end of the middle ages um the new technology there are many but there aren’t that many but there’s some and uh two that come to mind would be the printing press obviously that’s a cultural change that’s as big as the computer correct the printing press revolutionized knowledge and the other one is gunpowder the military technology from 1450 on there’s a steady improvement in weapons if you call that improvement and so you go as you can see in front of you from the crossbow to the a-bomb in 500 years right so uh let’s put it this way from a technological perspective that’s in advance even though from a moral perspective we might regard as that so life was changed and warfare was changed by the new technologies the weapons as we know were the old-fashioned muskets these are the new technologies of one musket ball at a time and it didn’t have great accuracy consequently this required generals to mask together large numbers of men to fire volleys which had a better chance of hitting their target if you have a whole bunch of of uh you understand what i’m saying you line them up you shoot some of them will hit the other side that in turn required the training of large numbers of soldiers to fire their muskets at the same time that in turn required standardizing and urine for uniformitizing training drill and clothing has to get where you get the word uniform right you want all the soldiers to dress the same and shoot at the same time in other words for the first time since the roman empire training and drill became an essential element of military activity with a real attempt at professionalization which was not the case in the middle ages the country that really started this was the france of king louis xiv the famous louis xiv who uh was an active king for 50 some year 45 55 years 16 16 17 15. he really was a king since he’s a baby but it doesn’t count when he took over from 1661 this king wanted to rule europe or at least he wanted as you can see in front of you that france should extend to its natural frontiers so if you look at the map that i’m pointing at you right now you’ll see the rhine river on the right and he said that’s where friends should be up to the rhine river uh because then they have a natural boundary like the roman empire did and the germans won’t be able to cross into france probably was all german territory so he was conquering territory they didn’t want him and it was his goal in the gold the kings of france to take over all the territory of the rhine which means that they had their way france would now include belgium and the rhineland in addition now says lorraine be quite big now this was his plan to to do this by aggressive wars france had the biggest population at the time you won’t believe this france had a bigger population population than russia and louis xiv had two famous ministers who were ruthlessly mercantilist of colbert luvois you see in front of you colbert who is as you see is like the alexander hamilton to be perfectly honest alexander hamilton was a fan of colbert and he copied his economic policies centralization encouraging manufacturing the building up of what we you and i today would call military industrial complex by the standards of 500 years ago uh that’s one and then the other one was the marquis de lavois very famous uh war minister secretary of defense as you call today who was a master organizer and uh he standardized the army and he raised an army of four hundred thousand no one had anything like that at that time and uh he built up the new fortification system of oban when they built formic henry in america they brought a french guy over to design before them you know the french were the head of military technology at that time now as the 16th and 17th centuries proceeded all the other armies imitated the french they had to they had to and slowly but surely all the armies became more organized and standardized with common uniforms common rifles artillery etc armies grew in size and in complexity of organization with supplies of food fodder and other food for the animals clothing weapons and ammo all becoming an absolute necessity indeed military strategy in those centuries often revolved very often revolved around bases and sources of supply you understand the whole thing was around the base and source of supply 17th and 18th century warfare is rather distinguished by the concept of what they used to call war of maneuver in which case you defeat an enemy army without fighting a battle if you can pull it off or at least you frustrate the enemy army’s attempt to get your land without fighting a battle if you can pull it off by cutting them off from their sources of supply or making them exhausted as well many examples in military history where supply plays a key role for example just off the top of my head i realize it’s out of time ahead and in the word of the austrian succession 1744 frederick the great with the great prussian army invaded bohemia which was part of austria-hungary and uh the general trown the austrian general simply kept away from it wouldn’t let him fight a battle and made sure that he was always uh not within range of frederick the great and the prussian army ran out of ammunition i mean that ran out of supplies and had to retreat that’s all simple as that without fighting a battle in fact frederick the great but later on said this is my rebbe trown was my presenter in military art if you know anything at all about the civil war which you probably don’t um you’ll know that something called the telehoma campaign in 1863 when the union general rose krantz who started out in kentucky over there and the confederates occupied central and western uh in eastern tennessee and the lincoln one that cleaned out and uh this general rosecrans uh did an army did a maneuver notice he he came down around where the confederates were and they moved all the way around them through certain mountain passes and threatened to cut off their supplies and the confederates then had to retreat without fighting a battle and they pulled back all the way to chattanooga and then he did it again he went around chattanooga and cut them off from their base of supply and then without fighting a battle they had to retreat and pull out of chattanooga then stuff happened but the campaign itself was brilliantly successful and general rose cranston was angry because abraham lincoln didn’t give about mazel tov and it’s a famous letter he wrote to stanton he said why because nobody died therefore it’s not a glorious battle i beat these guys force them out without fighting you understand that’s why you find that um sometimes great generals uh consider it necessary to destroy the economy and the farms and kill the crops and the animals in certain areas in order to cut the supplies off from the other side right again off the top of my head the duke of marlborough and uh has the devastation of bavaria when he’s fighting the french we’ll talk about that next time uh the famous english general and uh bavaria’s on the side of the french and so he simply takes the army and burns down all the forms and he’s nothing personal i just have to deny the french any food and it worked if you’re american you may remember general sherman i’m sorry general sheridan was told by general grant go and burn down the whole shenandoah valley so robert e lee one of supplies and that’s what they did right and the grant said i wanted that a bird should fly through and have to bring his own provisions in world war ii patton was stopped because he ran out of supplies the us army landed in d-day by late july they were pushing the germans back they busted through the german lines germans were in total retreat and patton says give me enough supplies and go right now to berlin which could very well have been true and the war could have ended in late 44 but he outran the supply trucks and he just had to stop until the supplies caught up food ammo things like that and meanwhile the germans had time to re retreat and regroup and and form the defensive lines and the war never had to go on for another six eight months the japanese in world war ii lost for hmong reasons because when they thought about pearl harbor it never occurred to them that the united states navy would perform this logistical miracle and as you see on the left hand there’s a famous book conquering thai by tol who describes this very well i recommend that book if you’re into that stuff if you look at the map on the right all the way across the pacific just imagine a line of thousands of ships thousands of ships carrying supplies continually from the us to the fighting forces not only ammo toothpaste coca-cola food oil you know you name it and who can do that but the americans showed in world war ii they’re the masters of logistics so the bottom line is that we see supplies or the untold story you don’t see about them in movies supplies and logistics on a large scale require a first class businessman some with it with amazing organizational skills let me explain it’s simple let’s say for example in the 18th century you have an army of forty thousand soldiers not so big forty thousand soldiers okay rebecca there’s a hundred and twenty thousand meals a day here we’re in the corona time ta is giving out meals uh you know uh what’s the officials giving me a 120 000 meals a day uh three times 40. and that’s not counting the animals you got to feed them oats and stuff the cavalry horses and the pack animals so you got to come up with 150 000 meals a day that’s over a million meals a week are you able to supply week after week a million meals a week that’s for army of forty thousand and many armies were a lot larger and this was before he had trains and mechanized transport how is this done other than france the european countries including the turkish empire did not have the bureaucratic apparatus to handle these supplies and even if they had such bureaucracies all the bureaucrats do is turn to the private sector that’s what they did in this country in world war ii bureaucrats go to private industry and they and they run up the big defense contracts the only one doesn’t have a private sector would be if you’re stalin in world war ii there is no private sector so the soviet state was a war economy sui generous there’s stalin and the guys around them look like a bunch of boobs aren’t uh the guy in the funny suit on stalin’s right uh malinkov and khrushchev on the left these guys ran the economy you understand they made sure everybody in russia ate maybe they ate a little did the army had plenty to eat or enough to eat that they had the ammo the tanks all this stuff it’s an economic marble but everybody else has a private sector uh but there was no private sector not an adequate one in the early modern era when the industrial complex with factories so what do you do how do you have a war have an army without a military industrial complex an objective necessity will produce an answer or not the objective necessity therefore in the early modern era was for what we would call a one-man pentagon a businessman with extreme executive ability a wide economic network that provided access to massive amounts of food and manufactured goods produced in little cottages you know i need belts for an army that’s leather so i get you know thousand peasant families or whatever or two thousand or three thousand and i can track with them each one does a belt you know or four sounds or whatever so it’s that kind of organization of labor and another network that could transport everything to the desired destination on specified dates for a million meals a week in other words the skills that today would make somebody the successful ceo of a major corporation such persons are always hard to find and were even more rare in the early modern era the scarcity of such individuals coupled with the absolute military requirements of surviving in the european jungle of those centuries when everybody’s at war with each other all the time led the rulers of europe and the generals to put aside the passionate anti-semitism and turned to jews again and again it all started predictably with what we know is the very first necessity of war here is the famous austrian commander monte cacoli sounds funny to you but he was a famous general and he said famously for war you need three things guilt guilt and guilt right that’s number one and so where do you get that okay where do you get that kings who wages wars or maintain large armies need a lot of money the house won’t get that kind of guilt well one way through taxes but this is not so simple because the king had to they were not absolute monarchs the way people think they had to deal with what’s called the estates the nobles the clergy the middle class and all that who didn’t want to pay large taxes usually um you could have mercantilistic economics you know taxes on imports exports commerce that sort of thing and the countries of europe did pursue that policy especially france muhammad should bring in then you get you’re borrowing from your big banks with big interest the banks of amsterdam for example are famous for having a lot of bucks but you know obviously they charge according to the risk and then you got jews successful jews who knew how to broker big deals in terms of government loans which means pooling funds from other jews elsewhere it’s the kind of alternative financial system you get it these jews the ones i’m talking about could amass large funds but how reliable was the kings going to pay that’s the risk baby that’s the risk so the interest and everything else is calculated into that already in the 16th century back in the 1500s the famous the most famous jew in germany at that time joshua roseheim who was the jewish representative in front of all the glacier authorities if you’re my age you’ll remember the famous two volume uh teenage book by marcus lehmann called josela rosheim uh but you probably know he’s talking about there’s a very famous jew in 1500s a remarkable person who was this businessman and a rabbi and he’s the guy who dealt on behalf of the jews with the geisha governments especially the holy roman emperor charles v who was also the king of spain in spain to his inquisition in germany he wasn’t and jews had a very hard time in the 1500s but i can tell you like this jose lovroson was able to be of service to the armies of the emperor charles v in the wars of religion that were flourishing in the 1500s between the catholics and the protestants and through his help he was able to extract better treatment for german jews as a reward so there you have a case where jew says listen we’re doing you a lot of favors why don’t you ease up on the gazers a little bit and we know even though charles the fifth hated the jews but he was pragmatic and this is especially charles could not help but be grateful when yozo you don’t know the history of charles v obviously but in the end of his life they have what he called the first word the small call the clique that kid you’re not and the second word the small call the glee and during the second worshimal called igli there was a plot by maurice of saxony to uh invade the t roll and they kidnapped the emperor and there’s a gun some ice up they’re connected with this and uh and yozo warned him so basically he saved his bacon you know now um these are facts the role of the jews as suppliers of money and food and supplies to be a food and supply they call commissary you’ve heard that like nowadays they’ll say this cater as a commissary but the technical term commissaries refers to somebody who supplies who provides food and supplies things like that to somebody in this case army the role of jews as suppliers of money including supplies as commissaries increased dramatically during the 30 years of war they have a map of award at least for 30 years obviously and um it was in germany fought and you see those lines a little bit and germany was invaded by sweden and that’s what you see over there and by the french and by the catholics versus the protestants and sometimes the catholics won and some of the protestant one and there were other armies in there and what they all had in common little royale they killed germans by the zillions now when the world was over the catholic church had to give a hectare for a while for bigamy you know polygamy that’s how many men were killed so during this you had armies constantly fighting for 30 years all over the place and army needs food an army needs supplies an army needs weapon you have to you also need what we call today a canteen you know a px the equivalent in those days and uh this is something the jews got into because the jews are not catholic or protestant you know uh we have one of the famous uh chroniclers in that time uh johann moshe bush who is a famous person in germany who who famously said because he was in the 30 years of work all jews are common series all commentaries of jews because whenever you go in the battle you see the protestant army he’s a catholic army you see the swedish army see the french army the spanish army and jews right they’re there before the battle starts they’re doing when the battle’s over you know the soldier bought killed uh an enemy and took a diamond ring the jewish guys did it to turn you know to to buy it off and turn the money i kill you not i did it to provide the uh the necessities and also the luxuries you know you want to buy ice cream and all the restaurant it’s all common series of jews all jews and common says there were many of these jewish commissaries as the 17th century proceeded this is a whole series by itself by the way i could go with great legs tonight i’m going to concentrate on three or four actually i only have time for two of the most famous of these commentaries in order to make a point but i hope to do more justice to this in a part two the first of the three famous ones or two tonight is samuel oppenheimer shmuel oppenheimer who lived as you see right through the 1600s for the east from heidelberg in western germany southern germany uh near the rhine uh and a jew from guy he was very good in business obviously and he became of help to the local german ruler there were 50 60 70 little german states some of them the size of a postage stamp some of them much larger and he was i think the electoral pal of the palatine one of the two princes and he got into business applying the court and all the rest of it and he got a good reputation in business all reputation will you fill the contract will you do it on time and under budget under scale you know all that now uh that means for the first 43 years of his life he was a successful jewish businessman in western germany but then he was called to austria here we’re dealing with uh what we call today the austrian empire hopsburg empire wasn’t in austria at that time uh if you look over there in the purple colors i guess you’ll see uh what uh it’s not even designated but in the middle can i point to this or not i have over there okay great no nobody can see you but i have now so here okay great where where the mouse is now we call the crown of bohemia and austria and all that this is ruled by the habsburg family which is called the house of austria it’s called the austrian empire it’s not the austrian people and uh this is the holy roman emperors and they were trying to hold on to their territory and expand it uh and austria fought many wars in the 1600s continuously against neighboring powers who were trying to take their land away now the ruler of austria for 50 years uh was the holy roman emperor because the holy roman emperor was another title of the ruler of austria well leopold the first was not a nice guy in general he was certainly not friendly to the jews matter of fact when he married his first wife she was spanish and ugly take a look at her anti-semitic and she said i don’t know and they had a child who died in childbirth and she says because you have juice here and she nagged him and he kicked the jews out of vienna even though it kicked the jews out of vienna even though it hurt his economy uh that was in 1670 and sean all you throw well guess what three years later the european politics was such that they were attacked by the french he got into big war against king louis xiv the huge king of france at that time necessity kicked in because of a sudden you’re fighting a major european army if you lose you’re going to lose your throne you’re going to take over your country so what do you do now uh the austrian army the imperial army they call it was fighting the france and they had a good general but they couldn’t contend against the french forces because the supply system was dysfunctional as the general montecula as you see over here was a great general who’s always complaining i can’t do nothing if the weapons don’t come if the surprise doesn’t come but the food doesn’t come if the soldiers don’t have shoes if they don’t have cannonballs you know they can’t do it and so the austrian government officials and the treasury in the defense said we hate to say it but we need we hate to say we hate jews we’re we’re very bitter catholics i hate the jews but we need this jewish guy oppenheimer we heard he’s honest and most important he’s efficient okay when he says those liberals deliver and this is what the army needs more than anything else and it’s a case of necessity overcoming prejudice leopold the emperor reluctantly concurred and uh from then on during his many wars the austrian armies the imperial armies were totally run on the supply side and so forth and the finance side by jews uh all of his reign the emperor leopold will have cognitive dissonance towards shmuel oppenheimer he’s a firm jew i hate him on the other hand i have to admit that he’s the best it pains me to admit that he’s far above any christian guy it pains me to admit that he’s never cheated me or caused me any laws i have to say the guy is not jewish but he’s first-rate why can’t we find the catholic but we can’t that’s how he thought okay now um as a result the imperial government the austrian government stiffed uh samuel repeatedly you know he he raised big money for him he didn’t get paid he spent a lot of money they had again promissory notes they weren’t worth anything and it continued to be the commissary i don’t know why why would you deal with that but maybe we can only speculate you know maybe he felt thrilled to be at the top of the politics but because he made money other ways also but to do what he did was just extraordinary as you’ll see in a minute in the 1680s and 1690s austria the hopscotch got involved in a two-front war okay with dramatic consequences so if you look at the map in front of you you see the whole roman empire right and uh where the cursor is and on the left side is france and the right side is the ottoman empire and the austrians are attacked on both sides and fighting on both sides so mainly they got involved in a over their head in 1683 came a very famous event in european history the ottoman turkish invasion of austria and the siege of vienna okay so um the turks came with army 300 000 men the austrians had like 30 thousand uh the city of vienna was under siege and being attacked by the turks if the turks would have broken through maybe they would come to take over the rest of europe maybe everybody would be muslim today it’s a famous event at the last minute very dramatically uh here let’s show the movie right very dramatically uh the ottoman commander the kara mustafa the vizier saw a polish army uh on a hill nearby and came and surprised attacked him and and won so this is called the the famous relief of vienna by jan sobieski the polish uh king who achieved the uh international fame as a result of this ceviewski who was a polish king was good to the jews i would point out had fought the turks many times and learned how to beat him he knew their tactics and he put his artillery on a hill where nobody could see and had this priest over there and if you see in the second the what he called the polish army lined up and they made it basically i would say the most famous cavalry charge of the modern times all right um if you’ll i won’t hold you to to watch the whole movie over here which is a shame but if you give it another minute you’ll see that it’s called the wing two sars the the the polish is specialized in these lance charges where the cavity used to wear wings and things like that there’s the polish army and uh they busted the turks now let’s move on they can watch this separate the uh it’s a by the way poland recently made this movie poland uh because they’re very proud of this and they said we stopped the muslims you understand now as a result the turks who had always won were beaten and ran away but they still fought like tigers they’re now proceeded for next 15 years the imperialist counter-offensive in other words the emperor leopold got german princes and others to raise armies and go fight for the reconquest of hungary because as you can sort of see in your map over there um this whole area of hungary which was much larger than hungary today it’s like hungary plus romania you know where a lot of it transylvania and stuff um slovakia this hungary was ruled by the turks and the austrians and their allies undertook this long series of wars which is basically involved what you call the christian reconquest of hungary and the austrian armies were led by two very famous generals two brilliant first cousins uh prince louisa baden and prince eugene of savoy you see called the smashers of the turks uh they’re actually very famous in history and you’ll see it’s a jewish angle these two generals who are young guys right uh beat the turks again and again in long hard battles and uh they are the two biggest qasidim of shima oppenheimer why because he delivers okay he delivers the army’s constantly needed supplies food weapons and all the rest of it and he sent fleets of ships down to daniel now i’ll read you something in a minute plus in addition shmuel lebanon was a smart guy when these guys first came to vienna they were broke and he lend them a lot of money could tell that they’re going places because they were foreign-born nobodies and when they reached the pinnacle of success they remembered who had been their friend in tough times indeed prince eugene i can’t emphasize what a famous general he is in europe eugene saboy uh whose conquests extended into the balkans he conquered belgrade sarajevo and who knows what is supposed to have made a policy during his wars whenever he came across hebrew looking stuff instead of burning it he would put it away and send them to shemo oppenheimer and these included rare safarim and kiswayak manuscripts which later ended it’s a long story his nephew who’s uh let’s go to the next one is the famous rub dubbing up and hammer of prague uh it was a big rich rabbi in the 1700s and he got all these uh books and manuscripts and he added on to them and here you see a title of a book that just came out called prince of the press by some professor in new york who uh obviously wrote a dissertation on this very famous collection of 4500 farm and 1000 manuscripts that ended up after a whole series of adventures in oxford and the bodleian library and it’s still very famous used by scholars today old and rare editions unique additions of many things and if the story is true then all these come from prince eugene savoy the catholic commander uh for shimel oppenheimer now his star was higher and higher and sure enough like you read the pirkei story the prime minister of austria cardinal cullen who had formerly been a soldier himself he hates the fact that jewish so much power and so efficient he says this is a hill of christianity you know and we got to do something about it the emperor said you’re right get me somebody and he said i’ll get you the bishop of warsburg but you know what happens every time they put this gun in charge they messed up they uh they were corrupt they didn’t deliver on time and the generals were saying what did you get rid of the jew for you know and said what’s the feel of christianity he said the heck with that we gotta win you know and uh just the politics of that time so when he screwed up uh obviously when shimalapanam was recalled no one can match his uh amazing abilities and international networking skills how’s the guy like this do it let me let me say that out loud then i’ll read you if i’m from oppenheimer and i have an army of 50 000 men on the rhine and i need like you say a million meals a day including animal stuff i gotta get in touch with other jews elsewhere in germany where they’re growing grain and outside of germany like poland and ukraine where they have vast fields of grain and i gotta say how much grain you got out there guys and say oh we got a belt well i’ll buy it all you know before the season is over before they harvest it i’ll buy it all and uh what’s the price we agree on a price and then you got to get other jews shmerrill and barrel and yonko and i guess how do we haul you know 10 million pounds 20 million pounds of grain to the rhine all the way across europe so they opened the map and the guy said well you got to get it to this river and they got to organize a a caravan of so-and-so no logistics how many wagons does it take how many horses are we gonna need to do the wagons how much fat are we gonna need to provide for the horses to slap the wagons like hi god you have to bring the grain buy august 10th to this in this place on the rhine or in hungary or someplace like that that was the level of organization unbelievable the amount of calculations unbelievable take a look here’s the famous description from the selma stern book which she wrote about this this is just uh a typical time at schmul oppenheimer they’re now followed a period of intense activity oppenheimer was able to deliver immediately after the signing of the contract with the austrians eighty thousand hundred weights of flour to the garrison and lynch but had to work day and night to obtain as greater quantity of oats as possible so the cavalry would not be endangered by new food when after the liberation of vienna the austrian imperial troops began to pursue the fleeing turks oppenheimer arranged to have hand grenades gunpowder pistols and carbines sent on ships and rafts down the danube river and by means of wagons and horses on the roads and you can imagine what the roads were like at that time at the same time he secured rafts to wagon um to move troops from the empire transported an army from quebec transport an army from hungary to krakow from hungary to krakow an army uh transferred cavalry regiments from brunswick to bohemia these are long distances and supplied the fortresses in hungary albania transforming syria you sit next to this guy in show you have no idea what he’s running right don’t change it his chief problems were besieged open vienna where the army had to be supplied with provisions munition clothing tobacco linen brandy and newly conquered belgrade where he sent a hundred ships hospital and camp equipment and material for shipbuilding down to daniel talk to me about the organization that’s required to put all this together let’s go when in 1688 louis xiv began the war of the palestinian oppenheimer the jewish guy undertook to supply the soldiers on the rhine on the mine river and in the danube at the same time he was suggesting the construction of a danubian fleet he was fortifying the fortress of phillipsburg which was attacked eventually and still being threatened by the french nothing escaped his observation he followed political maneuvers the formation and dissolution of coalitions kept himself informed you know this is before cnn listen how do you know newspapers how do you organize an efficient intelligence system that keeps you up to date with what’s happening in europe you have that first class spy network you understand uh what does he have he watched with close interest in military movements of generals and commonly calculated the economic difficulties of the government he drove his numerous agents business friends and correspondents throughout europe his son and his employees to ever greater efforts whether he was ordering gunpowder and cloth from holland wool and salt peter from bohemia arms and munitions from corinthia spices from hamburg green from bumburg he appeared as one driven to restless activity but also is one who refused to acknowledge defeat and for whom no obstacles were insurmountable his ships were often wrecked his goods were confiscated or damaged his transports were delayed shipments of money were lost his funds were depleted his creditors pressed and even threatened him and yet he never lost courage he was attacked and reviled malicious unscrupulous impassioned people he’s he describes them tried to harm him his home was plundered his business paper is destroyed his employees his son himself spent a month in prison because the government in prison every once in a while his goods were disapproved his uh accounts were checked payments were withheld from him yet his will was never broken if anything these difficulties served only to strengthen the determination and that’s a small piece of who the guy was so it’s actually quite remarkable he wasn’t fighting it physically but he’s running the warp the supply side and i’ll tell you again he’s the guy you see in the show he’s a rich guy yeah he’s a guy he’s staying short he have no conception of what’s going through his mind when he’s dominating barcode what he’s doing astray i mean my goodness my goodness my goodness now uh therefore nobody can match this and the zenith of his efforts was when his very good friend prince eugene let’s go to the next one all right the zenith of his efforts came in the 1697 when uh prince eugene is the boy won his greatest victory you see in front of what they call the battle of zento is very famous that’s eugene uh obviously dramatization and they caught the turks with their pants down they were crossing a bridge and they weren’t ready for attack and eugene sent the army right in he said we’re going to go right now all avon on the events and they start they just started firing they just took out the things started firing at the turks and the sultan of turkey was on the uh on the bridge and he almost got killed and basically the troops were totally busted as a result of this turks had surrendered this battle cost the turks hungary you understand it was this battle that made that the hungary would be a christian country as it is the hungarians know it that’s why they’re all against the muslim immigration and that sort of thing they’re very illiberal on this they said we went through this once already that’s the sultan of turkey and uh his army was destroyed in front of his eyes all those bullets you see from the austrians all the horses that supply the cavalry all that stuff the swords you know everything except the fighting where there’s eugene shooting a pistol all supplied by schmull oppenheimer that’s my point okay all of it because nobody else could get this stuff there on time all of it so without that without the means of war you want to have all these dramatic things now nobody ever knows that and so what you do is you look at this this is what they make movies out of you know errol flynn they show the dramatic stuff and by the way no question about it there certainly was dramatic and eugene if the boy was a hero and now all that kind there’s no question about it but you couldn’t do it if you didn’t have the wherewithal and that’s my point okay now as a result hungary was liberated from the turks if you want to call it that with jewish money and military supplies i think it’s just funny because later on the jews in hungary very important element the economy dominate parts of the economy the gods of hungary became a country liberated from the turks by jewish money you want to be down to it the hungarians know it but they don’t like to talk about it what did he get in return they never got really paid well so he got trinkets uh he had the right to have his gazendal his mob live with him so basically noju was allowed in vienna okay smalling up on kendall in vienna but schmuel up as i guess i got a family of wife and she’ll all right the wife and children of vienna i need a rabbi to run this service all right campbell rabbi i need a cause to run this okay because i need to show you guys over here you see the other thing trolls kind of stick they got a lot of people the right to live in vienna where it was easy to make a living so that’s one thing the emperor gives him the title chief rabbi of hungary yeah you just wiped out hungary now you make them chief rabbit big deal there was by the way a big jewish community in buddha not in budapest but buddha and when the austrian imperialists took it over they killed all the jews because it was in the frenzy of a battle this is i spoke about now long ago in the podcast this you know who was the rabbi in buddha and an austrian cannibal landed in the shabbos table killed his wife and chilled in front of his eyes and he himself would take a prisoner as a slave but small alpine bought him out you understand so it’s a strange uh series of events we’re dealing with over here uh when rabihura hasid not the utica of disabled but this proto-zionist organized a thousand jews to go and try to make a big ali on israel in 1700 he had to go from poland where he rounded up his 1 000 followers and somehow other uh get to israel which means he had to go through the austro-hungarian empire so schwallen upon armageddon special passports and they could go down the danube on boats so he was able to do a thing like that and uh finally this book you see in front of you is from john andreas eisenmanger very famous writer who wrote a book called anti-jewish you know what the real secrets of the jews what jews really think of us and he had he’d faked everybody out and pretend to be a christian who was interested in me magaya and he learned of a storm in yeshiva and in his book he has a german translations you won’t believe it not only of of uh bad things as he sees it from the bible in the talmud he’s got the marshall the says the rajv the guy knows how to learn it’s a very very interesting book that’s been translated in many languages well they didn’t want this book published in 1700 because it caused big anti-semitism and small alpine are paid off the emperor to forbid the publication of the book although the guy got around it in another way but that you know these little favors you could get that’s all when he tries to collect the money owed him the emperor stiffed him and when schmule oppenheimer died in 1703 the government declared it would not honor its debts to him okay and naturally the business went bankrupt went belly up okay in other words let’s put it this way you want a friend get a dog as as a later austrian statesman once said austria will always shock the world by the depths of his ingratitude and this will certainly demonstrate over here because he saved them time after time and they stiffed them but of course they were not only evil but stupid because what happens if the number one business goes belly up it caused a depression you understand it shook the whole business world the austrian economy collapsed but these bureaucrats were so anti-submitted they wouldn’t see it in spite of everything rabbi shmuel’s successor was ready to pick up right where he left off that’s the next guy you see over here simpson wartheimer who was married to the niece by marriage of shmuel oppenheimer shinshin we’re timber was a exceeding shiva guy oppenheimer was just a good jew but he wasn’t learning this guy was a big tomato you understand but like you see sometimes you know guys in your shoe but they’re very good tell me this from them but they go for business and uh he ended up going to vienna as a young man and getting involved in the small open army business with his military contracts he became one of his right-hand man and he learned the business and he also was a business genius of the type i’m describing over here and uh what can i tell you he becomes the the number one military commissary for the imperial forces for next 20 30 years um as a result jews not allowed to live in in vienna except him but not far from me and his eyes and stopped here take a look at this this is me i’m the fatso in the front speaking to that’s his show if you still go there the ships and we’re timer synagogue is still there because he was named by the emperor chief rabbi of everything and he helped the jews in eisenshot which is one of the shabbat kahilas if you’re from there uh build up and it was you know a nice building and all the rest of it and eisenstein was a big malcolm torah as a result of his what shall i say patronage all through the 1700’s yeah panama eras and asians are big people over there because they’re under the patronage of the wealthiest jew now as i said before he was a tom and krakow even a postsec you’d be surprised war timer knew how to operate more successfully than shmuel oppenheimer and he avoided being stiffed i don’t know exactly how he did it but he avoided being stiff and he knew how to get along with the three guy champers who didn’t like jews here you have on the leopold on the left and joseph the first was his son on the right who died young and then charles vi who really hated jews and in spite of that he flourished under them and therefore in addition that he was big tom jockham he sponsored yeshiva zero charleston she was he gave russia’s pillistic stuff the conducion and that’s why his relative the cavacioer famously wrote about him because how’s he always written at this time he said most ravaged that you have to go back a long time to rabashi in the time of gemara find somebody who was a multi-multi-millionaire and a world-class businessman as i’m describing over here i’ve only touched on the surface i think you get it you have to if you’re interested in subject you’ll you’ll look it up on your own uh and at the same time uh what can i tell you he’s writing conducive and lumpus purplistic shabbos and golden rushes charleston chibas while in a carriage on his way to arrange artillery and food for the armies of prince eugene and saboy and louis sabaden on the rhine facing the french during the award of spanish succession that needs an artist you know we have so many stupid paintings out there if you have somebody who wants to jewish student art jewish art uh contest that would be devolving you know you’d have to find the historical costumes all the rest of it because it’s true he’s like shimon nugget a little bit while he’s organizing the economy of the world he’s also writing uh david toro uh it reminds us a little bit more nothing he was able therefore because he was a big shot to get the emperor to agree that you can publish ashas in frankfurt in 1712 this is most unusual because usually catholic countries then only publish the gemara as a result of his extraordinary skills at networking and finance prince eugenia savoy was able to lead the austrian army to famous victories against the french they’re like the only times the austrians beat the french in history in the word of the spanish succession this is a fascinating colorful chapter in history warfare but the hour is late and so i’ll continue this i hope in the next lecture as i said before this might turn out into a seven part series if i can get the sponsors for this we’ve scratched the surface of the subject but i think you’ll see my basic point which is that in the 15 16 and 17 particularly the jews are very heavily involved in wars but not in the ways that you would imagine but not the way to imagine but the europeans cannot conduct the world with the help of these super jews whose uh networking skills and organizational skills are extraordinary and they turned what’s the right word you know uh busted lemons and lemonade the fact that jews are scattered everywhere they’re persecuted everywhere means you have jewish networking possibilities you can deal with jews in the head russia in poland in lithuania in england and italy in the ottoman empire and i can get all kinds of material in a way that nobody else can get it together and if i can put it together in the right time in the right place i have a uh what you call today a government contract and i never heard of anybody in history who got rich without a government contract one type or another and that’s quite a statement i just made but i leave you with that and have a good evening
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The Ceaseless Limited-wars of Early-modern Europe ... and the Jews Part I (Part 2)

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