The Many Facets of Dr Ambedkar #IndiaWeek21 Australia

The Many Facets of Dr Ambedkar #IndiaWeek21 Australia

i welcome you all on behalf of the university of melbourne australia india institute and dr ambedkar international mission we appreciate the initiative taken by aii to celebrate india week on the occasion of independence day of india i wish you happy 75th independence day we are honored to participate in india week and we will be presenting a webinar on dr ambedkar uh the topic of today’s presentation is many facades of dr ambedkar and its a relevance in contemporary india before we start i would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the traditional owner of land on which we gather today and i pay my respect to their elders past and emerging i also extend that respect to indigenous members who may be present today today we have a five presenters uh dr dhanuraj asmita mahirei singh prakash punekar gilibala thomas and professor karenka ah today’s topic is very vast and vibrant our presenters may only be able to touch base on the important part of their speeches which means that um audience may have a question to ask and we are more than happy to take all those questions i would uh encourage you if you have any question please put it in the chat forum and we will pick them up as um we all we finishes with all the talks feel free to use the chat forum to put your questions and raise your questions once again i would like to um welcome you all and thank you for joining and wish you happy independence day may i now request asmita mahiressing to start her topic on dr ambedkar and women’s empowerment thank you thank you rapali i measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achieved a powerful quote and famous quote by dr bhimrao america good afternoon everyone my name is asmuta malusing and as a woman as an indian woman of the 21st century it is an honor to have the opportunity to outline dr babasa van beekler’s role and his painstaking efforts in shaping the social and political framework of india especially in the advancement of women women empowerment feminism hashtag me too are topics that are trending and discussed on various social media platforms in schools colleges and workplaces we know the workplace gender equality agency and australian government statutory agency was created in 2012 for the very purpose of promoting and improving gender equality in australian workplaces according to the country report of government of india empowerment means moving from a position of imposed powerlessness to one of power in india it is believed that women were once observed once celebrated and even revered as goddesses however society became plagued with religious rituals customs and superstitions these customs became rules deeply rooted amongst people it became their culture laws that no one questioned the women’s position quickly changed women were second-class citizens controlled by men the advancements seized and they were subjected to various social evils such as child marriage sakhi where the widow was forced to sit on top of her husband’s dean require restriction to widow remarriage the devadasi system prostitution diary death witch hunting domestic violence etc this was not limited to women of certain caste or certain regions but applied to all indian women the situation for women was dire and deeply saddening they saw a huge social religious reform in the 19th century reformers from all over the country worked to eradicate inequality and castism and strive to give women a better social standing through education and raising women’s consciousness during this period laws were implemented to protect young girls and women’s for example the prevention of infanticide act of 1802 prohibition of sati act 1829 child marriage competition act 1929 etc dr ambikar had faced discrimination throughout his life due to his past his personal experiences and the plight of down children and women he had witnessed in this society had shaped him as a human being he was a he was highly educated and well great earning those degrees was a big feat and still would be in 2021 i always think indians should be proud of dr america and quite frankly should be bragging that one of our countrymen was the finest spoilers in the world his exposure to the western culture during his studies influenced his views on women’s rights you see he during his while when he was studying overseas was the time when england and america was witnessing its first wave of feminism during 1918 and 1920s at columbia university it is also where dr america was introduced to the words liberty equality and fraternity while studying under professor john dewey dr ambedkar incorporated these words in the biggest work of his career us indians are very much familiar with these words they form part of the preamble of the indian constitution he made it his lifelong mission to dedicate his life for the upliftment of the downtrodden and women it was justice equality liberty and fraternity had been etched into his mind he truly envisioned the young soon-to-be india independent india to be founded on these principles he knew to bring the society as a whole forward he knew the sick all the segments of the society had to be brought forward this applied especially to those who had been left behind for centuries the outcasts and the women dr ambedkar knew the way through to ensure equal rights for women was through establishing a legal framework as mentioned earlier laws did exist at the time however they were not streamlined and not to mention ancient hindu texts hindu law which was mainly based on dharma texts [Music] was very much practiced dr ambedkar began working on the hindu court in the bill dr america focused mainly on furthering rights for women inheritance rights the right to divorce the right of marriage and adoption and right to monogamy and alimony you will be honest and say i wasn’t aware that indian men were allowed to have multiple wives one day while i was still alive um so yes the hindu court bill guaranteed women’s social economic and religious freedom it was revolutionary and pretty much a punch or would you say a kick in the gut of patriarchy and orthodox religious rights can you imagine the uproar i’ve got a slide here um it’s a cartoon that was published in 1948 i first saw it in a presentation done by professor scott stroud from the university of texas it depicts women demanding their rights and the then law minister dr ambedkar on sitting on a tree branch um watching and you can see that people really fear what um what the women might do with the freedom they’d gain the bill as you can imagine faced opposition it’s not only from men but also women the bill was introduced to the parliament in 1946 and 1947. it was not passed it was opposed by most of the members of parliament at the time and including the then president of india dr rajendra prasad under jawaharlal nehru who was initially in favor um also changed his vote to ensure the general elections were not impacted dr baba sahib turned his in attention to constitution making in 1951 on the week that leave of the first election the then prime minister jawaharlal nehru dropped the bill completely this was one of the reasons that then then law minister dr ambedkar resigned dr america was absolutely devastated the bill had also taken the toll on him with the opposition he faced every step of the way for wanting to bring an enormous positive shift for the women in india ironically after his resignation most of the provisions proposed by dr america were later passed as bills namely the hindu marriage act of 1955 which gave women the right to divorce and maintenance in some cases and recognized in the past and indicate marriages the hindu succession act of 1956 which gave them legal rights to inherit family property the hindu adoption and maintenance act 1956 which allow women to legally adopt to legally adopt a child hindu minority and guardianship act of 1956 which allowed a woman to have to be the natural guardian of the child dr baba sahib regarded education as a means of social reform he encouraged women to get an education he believed it was the only way women could eradicate could ensure their own upliftment and removal of inequalities in the fundamental rights of articles 12 and 35 dr ambedkar rewarded women with right to inheritance right to vote right to equal gay maternity leave legal equality dr ambedkar had petitioned for women’s welfare and voting rights before the south borough franchise committee in 1918-1919 1919 government of india act gave voting rights to women however they were qualified in 1930 32 at the roundtable conference doctor umbietica once again pushed the voting rights forward the government of india act 1935 act saw voting rights for all women indian women had voting rights before india’s independence before the indian constitution was implemented on january 26 1950 and before many development developed countries for example switzerland who only um had implemented 14 rights in 1971. the vision of dr america about women is explicitly depicted in the indian constitution the previous slides list the articles and various funds these are all available to read online so what is the relevance of dr ambedkar and his work today and why is it important for indians and the world to know about him dr ambedkar was a crusader for women’s right and social justice he was ahead of his time he believed in equality and proportionate representation he was a feminist in the truest sense the provisions and rights took place as laws in india have ensured my fellow indian women and i can break the shackles of patriarchy pursue our passions and live life to our fullest potential so why then do indian women and believers of feminism shy away from acknowledging and mentioning doctor and maker’s contributions unity is meaningless without the accompaniment of women education is fruitless which are without educated women and agitation is incomplete without the strength of women thank you thank you so much asmita um now i would request um uh mr prakash puneker and his topic is going to be dr ambedkar and his contribution to indian economics i hand over to mr prakash thank you rupali and asmita it is often said legends uh do not talk stories they create history so was dr babasa ambedkar who has made such a history uh i believe it which will remain alive forever uh very good afternoon and jail him to everyone and wishing you all a very happy 75th india independence day for tomorrow i’m going to open some of the pages uh from babasav ambedkar’s historic achievements which is his contributions uh to the indian economy which has been hidden in mainstream media for some reason we all know he’s a father of indian constitution but often he’s projected more as a leader of backward classes in india well this may be acceptable in case of ordinary citizens but even high-profile citizens like these researchers or even the politicians back in india they too have ignored his contributions to the indian economics however uh i have read somewhere that the nobel laureate professor ahmad sin once said that dr ambedkar is a father of economics and he deserves more what he has achieved by the way my name is prakash maniker and i come from a city named chandrapur which is approximately 150 kilometers away from nagpur in maharashtra state of india nagpur is a place where a doctor maker embraced a buddhism on 14th october 1956 and my parents four parents uh were proud followers of bhavasai and hence embraced buddhism hence i am a born buddhist and a proud member of ambedkar international mission living here since last six years i’d like to thank the organizing committee of australia india week who gave this platform to me and to the audience to e-connect well baba seb was an institution who wrote many books hence as part of my talk i’ll try my best to bring out some of the key visionary suggestions he proposed in two of his key books on the economics he did this he wrote these books during his phd thesis in columbia university and london school of economics let me quickly share my screen i hope you’re able to see my screen yes prakash yep so that’s the first book i’m gonna talk uh that is administration and finance of east india company as we all know the east india company when arrived in indian subcontinents they arrived as a traders and eventually they took over the indian subcontinent and ruled for more than 150 years they did set up their own administration their governance their taxation their expenditure systems as they established themselves so in this book babasav has analyzed and highlighted how the east india company executed their administrative practices what were their various sources of revenues how the revenues were collected and utilized so i’ll give a short brief about the administration as it is important to understand how babasab derived a governance vision for india so administration was primarily centralized and the majority of the members in the administration were of course from england the administration was primarily divided into three categories the first one is the court of proprietors the court of directors and the code of controllers and they were all elected based on the number of shares each proprietor holds in the east india company so babas have said that the administration was not in favor of people of india having such a setup never allowed any indian representation within the administration due to various reason one of course could be no indian might have any shares in east india company hence the overall control and the consumption of the revenue via taxes and everything went into the pockets of the administrators and not really used in the welfare of indian people so literally the finance and the administration absolutely was sort of like centralized having analyzed the overall system babasai proposed how the administration should be for a country like india in future how the taxation should work etc so he everything he drafted in this book being most academically qualified at that time he was also aware of the benefits of education and hence he proposed how the expedition expenditure on the on education should be for any country i mean rightly i mean for a developing country like india so that’s the vision he drafted as part of his book and going forward this analysis and thesis form the basis of setting up of indian administrative laws the governance and the decentralization of financial governance that evolved into central and provincial system what we call today as central government and state government later there was a second version of this book as well uh which further drafts the you know proposed vision for india as evolving country the book name is the evolution of provincial finance in british india that is basically a study in the decentralization of the imperial finance i’ll quickly go to my next book [Music] which is called as the problem of rupee its origin and its solution like we said uh babasab wrote many books his top two books are the first one is the buddha and is the mom the second one is the annihilation of caste his third best book is this one the problem of rupee its origin and its solution this is considered as one of the complex and most difficult book to understand as far as i have read in multiple places so as he was expert in every aspect of you know data research he gave a very detailed historical insight about the evolution of rupee as a medium of exchange that is from 1800 till 1921 so just imagine the time when there was no google or easy access to the data or the internet dr babasav ambedkar gathered all the information and findings and drafted in this book so what has he written in this book he puts his thought around how the ideal currency system should be for a developing country example for obviously for india so in this context of proposing the monetary system for india babasav had a debate with one of the economists at that time his name was john maynard keynes there were two ideally you know topic for their debate one is the gold standard the second one was gold exchange standard which one would be the ideal for ideal currency system for india that’s what the debate was about in a very very simple terms um i’ll just try to brief what exactly these two standards are though there are more details available in this book about these standards gold standard is a monetary system where countries currency currency value is directly linked to the price of the gold at a given time that means a gold coin in circulation is a medium of exchange more gold a country have more money the country will have similarly the second one gold exchange standard is a monetary system where countries currency either it could be paper currency or metal currency the value is directly linked to the exchange rate of the gold between the countries basically this system aims to contribute more towards the international trades and john maynard keynes he was in favor of gold exchange standard and babasa was in favor of gold standard let’s see why dr ambedkar studied this matter in depth and commented on whether the gold standard or gold exchange standard would be better to curb the inflation in a country like india so in his findings about gold exchange standard he has very well mentioned that excess importance was given to the exchange rate stability rather than the price stability according to him the gold the gold exchange standard rate stability will benefit only for the only to the trading class and not to the poorers of the economy poorest will be benefit only when there is an internal stability ambedkar asked a very relevant question in the debate what is the purpose of money that is is it how much gold we purchase or how much commodities we purchase out of it the obvious answer is how much communities or services we can purchase out of it so according to babasai the currency should be stable in terms of commodity and not in terms of gold so further he also analyzed how the centralized fund management system should work uh for india going forward so he mentioned that he did not like the idea that the government to manage the flow of the currency in the country he was afraid that the government will not be able to manage it properly and it can lead to some unstability uh when it comes to currency value so he was strongly uh kind of like opposing government managing the currency system so when there was a need uh to you know establish a centralized banking system within india that was pre-independence time hilton young commission came to india in the year 1926 to form a centralized bank so babasa present presented all his arguments which he has drafted in this book and he prepared a testimony which he submitted in front of the hilton young commission in 1926 which were taken into account while forming the reserve bank of india that is from 1926 till 1935 that’s the time when the rbi formation was in progress that means it was this book a problem of rupee that led to the conceptualization and eventual establishment of reserve bank of india that was on 1st april 1935 but i do feel and sometimes really it hurts why there is no picture of babasa on indian currency when he has significant contribution in setting up of rbi hence uh summing up my talk by saying that the nation which is standing strong today in terms of growing economy has a stronger strong foundation of baba sites thoughts analysis and the vision so apart from these two books he also has you know key contributions in the other area of indian economy which are relevant even today with revision from time to time so having said that i’d like to stop here thank you very much uh for listening to me jv uh thank you prakash jim may i now request giribala thomas to continue her presentation her topic is going to be dr ambedkar’s vision on industrialization and modernization i pass it on to giribella thank you rupali and hello everyone happy independence day to everyone uh i am guilty bala are you all able to see my slides uh not yet kiravala we can’t see your slides yet can you share please yeah now we are able to see them great thank you um i’m deeply touched by the honor bestowed upon me by the university of melbourne to put forward some of babasa’s philosophy on industrialization dr amritka’s life politics legal and social writings are very very fascinating this topic is really vast and so it is my intention to highlight a few aspects of his contribution towards industrialization and how modernization is relevant to the current era let’s talk about the contents that we’ll be covering today it’s definitely what is industrialization what are the benefits what are the issues and what is modernization in terms of bhabha ambedkar what is industrialization and why is industrialization necessary what is the correlate correlation to modernization it is a transformation of a society from organic to a manufacturing or an industrial economy this process has improved productivity and has allowed for mass production which in return has improved standards of living dr ambedkar believed that democracy offers every individual to achieve social equality economic and political justice which is guaranteed in the preamble of our constitution dr ambedkar concept of state socialism is based on few of the following points state should have ownership of agriculture and basic industries like transport communication insurance adjust distribution of common resources without any distinctions of caste or grade the state should maintain productive resources like electricity he went on to add that india should have to tackle a problem connected with electricity electricity should be available to masses at a cheaper rate a similar model has been adopted by china where every housing complex has centrally controlled public heating system the housing the electricity and the heating is subsidized by the government while analyzing the land holding size and productivity relationship dr ambedkar reviewed studies from other countries he quote sir henry cotton that there is a danger of too much agriculture in india the reason being that agricultural population is large compared to the proportion of cultivation land this means that a large part of agriculture population is surplus and ideal therefore shifting people away from agriculture to industrialization is the soundest remedy for the problem of unemployment and also will lead us towards prosperous economic according to baba said abetkur’s talks while addressing conferences at wages powerpoint he wanted industrialization of india as the surest man to rescue the people from eternal cycle of poverty in which they were caught according to him creation of jobs on a large scale produces essential goods for mars consumption india is a land of abundance and hence in babasav’s view using raw materials that are available internally will reduce external dependence and ensure increased safety of labor and ultimately leading to overall economic development the basic elements required for any industry to start and modernize are water and electricity dr ambedkar was responsible for the emergence of a definite all india policy with regard to the development of water and electric power resources in india he was instrumental in evolving multi-purpose approach for water resource development and on the basis of river valley bayesian project commonly known as integrated water resource management in a book a tribute to dr brimra ramji ambedkar dr ambedkar was recognized for his contribution towards the development of water resources while he was in charge of department of irrigation and electric power during 1942-46 uma bharti in 2016 who was the minister heading the ministry of water resources solution thanks dr ambedkar for his vision in starting central waterways irrigation and navigation convention which is now commonly known as central water commission he rightly visualized that only multi-focus projects can be beneficial in controlling the water the rivers and the floods to secure area for irrigation resulting insurance against famine and providing much needed power and finally uplifting the living standards of poor these famous projects as shown on the screen were conceived essentially for multi-purpose development with flood control irrigation navigation domestic water supply hydropower and for all other purposes we all know that the dharma the river valley project and the hiraku multi-purpose projects are the standing monuments in our memory which have been given by this great missionary when dr ambedkar took over the labor portfolio in 1942 with electric power as one of his important departments there was hardly any policy or information base as prakash previously mentioned that there was no information based for production distribution and administration of electricity in 1945 ambedkar and his department studied the problems and state perspective of electricity generation this discussion gave rise to the formulation of a new electricity policy which became the foundation towards electricity development in the country dr ambedkar knew that industrialization cannot be done without power hence he was of the view that we should produce cheap and adequate power babasai wanted to generate power by building dams on rivers in fact he laid the foundation of industrialization of india by making plans for multi-purpose river scheme he set up electricity boards for power generation and distribution liquid development sorry labour department under the guidance of dr babase ambekar decided to establish central technical power board which is for the development and generation of power systems like hydro power and thermal power dr ambedkar emphasized on the significance and need for the grid system which is working successfully even today if today power engineers are going abroad for training and work experience the credit goes to dr ambedkar again who as a leader of labor development formulated policy to train the best engineers overseas who will engage in actioning the modern methods of industrialization we all are reaping the benefits of this prosperous economy based on dr ambika’s vision and philosophy it can be seen that the life expectancy of people have increased by approximately 40 years in the last 60 years the gdp has grown substantially currently sitting at around 9000 billion we can say that the gdp has increased due to various regulations favoring the work working population as my colleagues have elaborated on some of these acts it can be rightly said that the above acts are relevant and provide safe working environment to the working population in the seventh session of la indian labor conference in new delhi november 27 1942 dr ambedkar for the reduction of working hours of the labor community he succeeded in bringing eight hours of duty in action the working time changed from 14 hours to eight hours it was a delight for workers in india enhancing quality of living and providing work-life balance protecting the vulnerable women and children the employed labor force was argued unorganized unstructured and unregulated these were the issues that babassa had to tackle they had no bargaining power the laborers were unable to seek legal protection they could not receive a new share of their work they were suffering from the worst labor conditions and human values labour’s tried employees sorry employers tried to divide and exploit labor ambedkar knew the strength and power of unity in 1936 he established the independent labour party with an objective to fight for the rights of working class the agenda of i ipl was to help everyone irrespective of being a touchable or untouchable rapping or non-brahmin hindu or muslim he introduced the indian trade union amendment bill 1943 and compelled the employer to acknowledge the same when we talk of modernization first thing that comes to your mind is internet of things artificial intelligence the web in this context we’re going to talk of tradition and traditional ways modernization is a process of adaption of new rules cultural elements and technology in the fields of life the modernization of india lies in the decline of traditional influences in society in this case one might expect that traditional social practices such as cost would become vegan every passing day have we achieved the dreams of this visionary have we succeeded in changing our thoughts and actions to modernize our society this is for all of us to ponder upon thank you everybody for your time thank you so much giribala that was quite a quite uh quite a bit of it in there so maybe in the question answer session we can get on to your questions can i now request um professor dhan raj um to proceed for his talk his talk is about dr ambedkar and the constitution of india thank you and possibly we are able to hear you yeah but the sound is little bit cracking okay maybe some networking but my slide is there or not uh we can’t see your slides yet giddy can i ask you to mute as well would you like to share your slides sir yeah one second no is it there problem yes now we can see fantastic thank you yeah uh good afternoon and all uh it gives me an immense pleasure to congratulate and express my best wishes to all the indians on the occasion of independence day which we are going to celebrate tomorrow and to mark this occasion i think this is a very relevant time to speak about dr ambedkar’s relevance as far as the india indians and the country as such is concerned uh among all the facets of the personality of doctor bhavasev babasava bitger it is a topic uh which i would like to discuss which i would like to share my views along with you all that is dr ambedkar’s vision of new india and its reflections in indian constitution friends uh when we say about something to be introduced a new afresh then definitely there has to be something which was in existence one can understand and similarly with this or in this fashion in this line we will try to understand the things which i wanted to share friends uh whenever we say anything about a nation it means the human resource available in that nation and uh understanding this fact the humanitarian society any humanitarian society or any civilized society we can say they must have some basis of some virtues some principles some postulates for that society to be termed as a humanitarian society and it is by and large accepted by the whole world you will find that there are four principles which i have mentioned in this slide equality justice liberty and fraternity these are the four golden principles of humanity which are accepted worldwide as the basis of a humanitarian society or civilized society and hence with this uh introducing introductory kind of slide i would like to request you to understand the presentation in the light of these four principles as to what sort of new nation the framers of the constitution dr ambedkar particularly was having been dreamt of let us have a look on some aspects but uh again i i would like to take you all to a fact that when i say new nation means there was something which was in existence which we wanted to transform into so let us try to understand by accepting the fact that we the indian were governed by a system of verna and caste which was completely based on a descending order of purity in the name of verna and subsequently the caste system i will not go much in detail of these things but we all know that the caste is an enclosed group of people having been identified by the name of their cause and the system of course was having a graded inequality and as i told you those four golden principles of humanity this varna and caste system divisive system of verna and caste badly affected these golden principles of the existence of this humanity postulates of humanity in india you can understand that it has badly damaged the sense of equality it has deprived many people from their equal opportunity equal rights equality on in all parallels of the concept you can say that was deprived it was also affected the concept of justice justice was also denied to the people by virtue of being from a particular caste or a particular verna you will uh also find that there was another postulate that is liberty or the fraternity they were also denied they were also deprived people were also deprived from enjoyment of a liberty and the fraternity among themselves so since it was an enclosed group of the people in the name of a cast people used to think only about their own cars irrespective of good or bad but they only think of their own casting that is a very big setback to the indian society as such our indian nation as such we have been observing for centuries together now when we say constitution as a document and dr babasha mahmudkar’s contribution in the framing of india’s constitution it is uh not uh needed to be expressed as in detail because everybody knows that he is a founding father of the indian constitution so dr ambedkar when we say has inculcated something in the indian constitution which can decide a few things about india as all the constitution will find in the world that they decide some things or they set something for their nation for their state every constitution establishes certain things for their faith and you will find in a very simple way there are four things which are decided in through uh every uh four things you will find that they are provided through a constitution of a nation it determines the social order of a nation it determines a political system in that nation it determines the economic pattern and the system of administration of the justice so these are the four things which a constitution of a nation of a country designates determines for that particular country and hence if we want to understand the constitution of india merely reading the articles in the constitution and commenting on them will not suffice the purpose instead it is necessary in that sense to understand the philosophy on the basis of which particular provision is ensuring in the constitution so every provision under the constitution is there because of something that something in the background of that and that background can be understood with the help of the constitutional philosophy so first every scholar of the constitution needs to read the constitution in the light of the philosophy of constitution and provisions of the constitution together there and then only it can be possible otherwise just going to google and putting their articles of the indian constitution is a very big very simple thing okay but then understanding the constitution is very important what the indian constitution has done to establish or to to dream of a new nation how it is reflected in the indian constitution and that is why only it is a first page of the indian constitution which is known as a preamble can give us an idea of that what is there in the preamble of constitution preamble of the constitution of india gives us a clear cut idea as to what sort of nation we wanted to create and that is why i have termed dr ambedkar’s vision of new nation through his constitutional philosophy or its reflection in the indian constitution so through the preamble itself we can understand as to what kind of nation we wanted to create and what was the nature of the nation we wanted to create what was the nature of the country we wanted to create so we can have these five attributes of that a nation we wanted to create we want to create we want our nation to be declared as a democratic one democratic country we want our country to be known as a republic we want our country to be known as sovereign we want to know our country to be socialist and secular so these attributes of indian state is a historical movement in the history thousands of years of indian history it is an historical movement that is the making of the constitution and declaring ourselves to be democratic to be republican to be sovereign to be socialist and secular and that’s why this is a very essential thing one need to know that what sort of indian nation was dreamt of by the famous of the constitution and these are the five attributes okay how this will be actually maybe having a geographical area mainly having the big buildings may be having a you know what we can say the bullet train we having the big airport airports and all so this infrastructure of course is a need but then more importantly the development of the human resource is very important and that is why as i told you if the postulates of the humanity which were to be learned in the form of equality justice liberty and fraternity which are recognized worldwide they are assured they are guaranteed under the preamble itself you will find and what kind of equality the constitutive preamble of the constitution guarantees equality of status and opportunity indian constitution guarantees its citizens equal opportunity of status there will be not there will be nobody like the grounds of discrimination are there nobody will be unequal all will be equal nobody will be greater than one other person okay so state equality of status and equality of opportunity constitution of india through its preamble guarantees its citizen justice in all walks of life more importantly social life political life and economic life so political justice social justice and economic justice is a guarantee given by the indian constitution to the citizens liberty again one another fascinate another postulate of humanity that is liberty so liberty of what liberty of thought liberty of expression liberty of belief liberty of faith and worship so these are the liberties which are very essential kind of thing for an intellectual development of a human being you know this is a very important thing in one’s own life so spiritually intellectual moral human being is based on this kind of a liberty which is guaranteed under the indian constitution fraternity is also a very important thing which is guaranteed under the indian constitution but the not only the word fatigue is mentioned the brotherhood but walk of what kind such a brotherhood dignified life is guaranteed by the indian constitution and this dignified individuals of india in india will definitely be a very helpful resourceful persons to form a unit and integrity unity and integrity of the nation so this brotherhood this fraternity assures the unity and integrity of the nation on the other hand so individual on one hand and the nation as a whole on the other hand such kind of fabric of fraternities i mean enshrined in the constitution it’s preamble itself and these are the objectives which were sought to be achieved by the famous of the constitution okay okay one more thing is that all these virtues are not taken by the french revolution people used to say that this is taken from the french revolution no in the constituent assembly itself dr ambedkar categorically mentioned that i have not brought it from any political revolution it is broad or it is taken from my master my guru my teacher lord buddha the greatest human being ever humanity has seen these of humanity are the principles given by lord buddha to the humanity of the world and that is why these are the objectives on the basis of which we want to develop we want to uh you know grow the humanitarian approach among the society this will be the foundations of the new nation this will be the foundation these objectives are the foundation of the new nation according to dr ambedkar and hence if we want to understand as to okay there are these objectives and all these things are mentioned in the preamble but where are they in the constitution they are available they are present in part three you can observe there are six fundamental rights provided to the indian citizen and they cannot be changed even by constitutional amendment anybody can have a dream that we will change the constitution but whoever will go to change this constitution that person that power whatever it is that government will itself become unconstitutional so changing a constitution is not a work of so any dominican harry will come and say that we will i’m going to change the constitution no that is not going to happen because this is a fundamental right is a part of a basic structure of the constitution and that is the very crux but then again question if such a great constitution we are having then why in last 70 years we could not achieve the objective still dead or why we are still you know in search of some option to find a way away in our troubles or why we cannot establish a very developed or modern society in india there is a very basic reason which is again categorically mentioned by dr babasha ambedkar in his message he clearly says he constantly it needs a constitutional morality we have to have faith in our constitution that this constitution is providing equality justice certainly liberty to all if this paid faith is not there then how can it be a useful document for us all and that is why it is needed to have a constitutional morality power says constitutional morality is not a natural sentiment it has to be cultivated we have to do some efforts for that we have to develop that sense of understanding i mean to have a constitutional morality we must realize that our people have yet to learn it this is a message this is a warning rather i could like to say where people have to learn the constitutional morality democracy we have adopted that is one thing but then babasha ambedkar said in india it is only a top decision on an indian soil which is essentially undemocratic because we were divided on various grounds caste you know the gender and all so we were basically yes together and we are we are going to adopt democracy so we will need to cultivate this understanding amongst ourselves and that is why i also from my side appeal to all of you all the listeners it is a very simple work we have to do here henceforth to make india more lovable and more livable constitution is the best resource we are having in our hand the constitution of india is the best document best tool which can make india more lovable and more livable provided we have to implicate constitutionalism among ourselves and that is why it is a humble appeal on behalf of aim on behalf of organizers of this event on behalf of humanitarian all the humanitarian human beings it is an appeal to all to make an effort for the inculcation of constitutional philosophy constitutionalism among ourselves because otherwise people will say that whatever happens in india whatever bad happens in india a constitution this is only because of constitution no constitution of india useless constitution of india is not useless my dear friends constitution india constitution of india is used less we have to use the constitution of india we have to implement the constitution of india there is a need of honest implementation of the constitution of india to give a way ahead to the better human society civilized society which will definitely be helpful to the humanitarian humanity throughout the world and with this few words i would like to thank all the organizers for offering me this opportunity thank you very much um thank you so much um dr dhanraj and i really love the line what you said um constitution is uh not yet but it is used very less very well said and thank you so much um can i now uh request um professor rajesh karankaji to present his speech his topic is dr ambedkar’s philosophy in contemporary india and its relevance thank you so much i’ll pass it on to dr karanka i feel privileged to be part of this webinar on the many facets of the from vedka it is a rare honor to speak on the relevance of the frameworks philosophy in the contemporary india let me tell you in clear terms from vedka is the true architect of modern india next uh as the previous speakers have focused on the other aspects and issues hence i will focus on these aspects for want of time the the issues which are related to the mission and the the the focus of the framework for making india a modern india because it was not so at the time of independence and therefore its contribution in terms of agricultural reforms or land reforms labor reforms state socialism and the uh constitutional morality with its citizens and making india our nation are some of the important points that i need to focus on next uh let’s let’s let’s talk about the agriculture reforms because we mentioned that holding of lands by few people is an accurate problem of indian agriculture which was variously which which has various disadvantages like difficulties in cultivation utilization resources of the of the available uh land the increasing cost of harvesting low productivity inadequate income and low standards of living according to him productivity of agriculture is related not only to the size of the whole thing of land but also with other factors such as capital labor and other inputs therefore if capital or labor are not available in adequate quantity and quality then even a large size of land cannot be affordable on the other hand a small size land becomes productive if the above the the these factors that i’ve just now mentioned are available in ample quantity with this thought the land ceiling act was passed uh the launching act was actually proposed by the which was passed after the independence he also mentioned about the slavery and the exploitation of labour bounded under the caste system and which is extremely bad for economical development and therefore he fought for its abolition his other suggestions uh for solving agricultural problems are worth worth mentioning and he said that collective farming uh should be undertaken at the same time we should ensure as a nation that the holding of land is economic or there should be equal distribution of land large scale visualization provision of money water seeds and fertilizers by the government cultivation of wasteland by allotting wasteland to landless labor minimum wages to con to the labor and control and regulation of the private lenders who lend loan to the farmers and exploit them by way of lending loans next we all know that from the from the day that we have become independent till today there are certain major problems which are plaguing the indian nation and most important of them are poverty illiteracy and backwardness of citizens now what are the reasons for the backwardness of citizens one is landlessness low ownership of private enterprise high independence of wage labor and high unemployment rate at the same time we should not forget that cause discrimination in employment the government as well in the market any of those three years of life is one of the major monsters that indian society is facing at the same time several people face isolation and condemnation by social and religious institutions next i have given you these figures because they show the employment figures in maharashtra maharashtra is considered to be one of the progressive states in india and if this decimal is the situation in maharashtra one can very well understand the conditions of other states which are quite low on many indicators next and therefore the premature wanted that the employment situation and the labor uh satisfaction should be ensured and therefore in addition to therefore in ad therefore in addition to the labor industry reforms he also wanted labor to be happy because labor is very important for any nation to progress so in addition to reducing the factory working hours from 14 to 8 hours he also credited in framing various laws for welfare of women laborers like women labor welfare women and child labour protection act and maternity benefit for women due to his untiring efforts national employment agency came into me dr ambedkar also enacted the employee’s state insurance key for providing workers with medical care compensation for injuries and insurance drug medical was instrumental in enacting nicole mine’s safety or stowing amendment bill for the benefit of the mine workers in 1944 but while he was in the viceroy’s council as a labor minister he brought the mica mines labor welfare fund which helped workers with housing water supply education entertainment and cooperative arrangements besides this he also is created to introduce various welfare initiatives for workers such as providing them with dns allowance leave benefit to our peace workers laboratory fund than many other next dr ambedkar’s important contribution for this nation can be also in his philosophy of state socialism that he wanted for india and therefore what is state socialism state socialism is the not not only equal status to each individuals but the representation that you can eat each individual gets in the in the governance of the country state socialism also indicates one man one vote each and every individual in this country should have a right to vote and there should be equal representation so for the voting pattern is concerned so one man one vote is was not only enough he went to step ahead and said that going ahead of this there should be one vote one value which will bring the the lost status of human beings and therefore his concern for this nation can be seen in his speech which uh which he delivered before the constant assembly which is the last speech and the notable dramatically also goes on to outline certain standards that have to be necessarily added to if india is progressive nation now what emerges from the contents of the speech is the picture of a visionary who was wise enough to warn the country of the pitfalls of taking its independence for granted the dangers of placing creed over the next the dangers of placing no sir can you go back to this yeah the dangers of placing feed over the nation is is extremely dangerous for any nation and dramatically said that this would be a very dangerous state which possibly will lead to indian nation losing its autonomy again he says not only india has once lost before lost her independence but she lost it by the fidelity and the treachery of some of her own people and he gave historical examples so what makes him anxious and he says now will this history repeat again it is this thought which fills me with anxiety i quote him and he says this anxiety is deepened by the realization of the fact that in addition to our old enemies in the form of caste and creed we are going to have many political parties with diverse and opposing political increase now will indian place the country above their creed or will they place creed about the country now look and even then we find this trend that people or there are several sections in the country which tend to put their creed over the nation and he had asked us the the patent at heart dramatically said i do not know but this much is certain that if the parties place speed above the country our independence will be lost forever this eventuality we must all resolutely guard against we must be determined to defend our independence with the last drop our plan the second warning that he gives and that is extremely also very very important he said that we as a nation must stop and abandon the bloody methods of revolution he says i let me quote him he says when there was no way left for the constitutional methods for achieving economic and social objectives there is a great deal of justification for the unconstitutional methods but where constitutional methods are open there can be no justification for these unconstitutional methods and he calls them the grammar of anarchy he also warns the nation against hero worship and he says there’s nothing wrong in being grateful to a great man who have rendered lifelong services to the country but there are limits to the gratefulness as has been well said by an irish bachelor he says and this and he he cautions us that this question is far more necessary in the case of india than in case of another country because in india bhakti or what will be called the path of devotion or hero worship plays a part in its politics unequaled in magnitude by the part it plays in the politics of any other country in the world bhakti in religion may be a road to salvation of the soul but in politics bhakti is a sure road to degradation and to eventual dictatorship and hence he insists if people this this dissatisfaction of people and this hero worship is to be avoided must ensure that there is social democracy and economic equality because if there is zero worship then there cannot be uh social democracy because zero worship is contrary to the hero or to the social democracy and he says that that let’s not be content with political democracy only we must make our political democracy or social democracy and political democracy cannot last unless there lies at the base of it a social democracy because they say that political democracy cannot allow us what does social democracy mean it means a way of life which recognizes liberty equality and fraternity as the principle of life they form the union of trinity in the sense that to divorce one from the other is to defeat the very purpose of democracy without equality liberty would be liberty will produce the supremacy of a few over the many and without fatalities liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over women without fraternity liberty and equality could not become the natural course of things it would require a cons a constable to enforce them and therefore we should develop the the feeling of oneness among all the people in the nation now all these concerns that dr ambedkar raises they are part of his modern india mission and therefore if you think that if india has to progress we should ensure that all these goals are achieved now have you achieved these goals today this is a simple question that each one of us should ask ourselves and therefore till we achieve these goals dr america’s ideas and philosophy shall continue to be relevant for all of us even at present times because i’m sure the answer to the question is negative we are it to achieve this goals and therefore whatever has gone ahead scholars who spoke spoke ahead of me on constitution on economic uh the ideas of the philosophy of economic development for this nation his contribution for the development of entire womenhood in this country whether they are diligent men or they are non-valid women because people try to limit doctrine better only to the dalits but that is not the case and therefore it was very well explained in the earlier speech the contribution procraster for the equipment of women of this entire nation and also his contribution in the field of industry and labor all these things are so relevant today and i’m sure he will give a thought to that uh i thank you for this opportunity i thank the organizers for having me here to share with you my goals thank you very much uh thank you so much um dr karenka um with this positive note um i think we would like to now uh end this session uh once again i will take this opportunity to thank you the university of melbourne um australia india institute and all the participant from dr ambedkar international mission thank you so much guys and i wish you all 75th independence day thank you so much
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The Many Facets of Dr Ambedkar #IndiaWeek21 Australia

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