US HIST 1 3

US HIST 1 3

hello everyone this is going to be 1.3 europeans make contact we are going to start with a primary source from the european explorer ferdinand magellan from portugal who said the church says that the earth is flat but i know that it is round for i have seen the shadow of the earth on the moon and i have more faith in the shadow than in the church so our objectives we are going to describe the conditions in europe in the 15th century we’re going to analyze how the changes taking place in europe shaped europeans worldview and economic expansion we’re going to describe the major developments on the iberian peninsula that is the uh spain portugal peninsula at the end of the middle ages and the start of the renaissance we’re going to explain the goals of christopher columbus and the consequences of his explorations and lastly we’re going to analyze how contact with europeans affected the people of the americas so let’s start with change sweeping through europe in the 1400s after the middle ages that’s what we call the uh the time after the fall of the roman empire there was a period of revival and renewal in europe especially political scientific and religious this was also a time for european exploration they were interested in making it to asia and picking up gold and picking up spices and this uh inspired them to travel so in the 1340s let’s say how we got here the 1340s there was a plague called the black death that killed off about a third of europe which was terrible for those who died however it improved the economic situation of the survivors because suddenly there was less competition so you could say you know you got to give me a better price for my work uh during this time a lot of cities grew in europe they increased uh the amount of trade and manufacturing they did and eventually these uh cities became a powerhouse especially italy italy became a big trading hub along with the netherlands and you can see this in some of the big cities that uh really became powerful in the 1400s one of the biggest is florence in italy this is a picture of santa maria della fiore better known as the duomo in florence if you ever get to go on the humanities trip i highly recommend it partially because florence is my favorite city in the world anyway let’s look at how the society was divided in europe as well just because uh you know things were getting better in europe it didn’t mean that things were equally divided there was a huge gap between the rich and the poor uh basically the upper five percent had all the money they were the landed aristocrats uh and the wealthy merchants and of course the kings and queens and royals and on the other side were the peasants who made up the majority the aristocrats were the ones who ran the economy the politics and the church these an aristocrat is a wealthy person who inherit inherits their wealth it’s not like they’re making new money they are spending the old money that they had about 60 percent of europe was peasants and they worked the land of the rich although a few were able to you know very few were able to scrape up enough money to make their own uh farms and get their own land now during this time all the big european kingdoms were were trying to establish dominance they were trying to prove that they were you know the big dog and so a lot of these european kingdoms were fighting each other hoping to acquire more land through uh military victories this included spain which was known as castile back then and france and england and portugal each of these countries thought they were the big bad and that everyone else would have to get in line behind them and also each of these countries was at that time ruled by a king they were ruled by a monarch or a queen and they were governed by wealthy nobles the elites so here’s europe in the middle ages you can see england france uh spain on the left-hand side uh italy hungary poland the holy roman empire which no longer exists lots of different places now europe expanded its influence during this time this was a time of new ideas this is what we call the renaissance a time of new ideas um and the church had the tightest grip on knowledge the church controlled the books especially because they were the ones who could mostly read and the church had for a long time said that all of the knowledge that anyone need needed to have known had been discovered by the greek and roman philosophers or was in the bible so any new knowledge that was coming out was considered bad or heretical most new science and new philosophy was seen as against the church heresy uh scientists risked being imprisoned tortured or even killed for espousing’s new scientific beliefs however a lot of the new technology and science that came uh led to uh increased trade and uh also um they uh led to new philosophies as well so an example of a scientist who lost everything uh this is a statue of giadano bruno in rome uh he was burned at the stake for uh claiming that the uh the earth revolved around the sun and not the sun revolving around the earth during this time we also had several crusades what is a crusade this was uh several battles where european kingdoms traveled to the holy land to attempt to liberate the holy land from muslim kingdoms in the middle east the goal was to get rid of what they called the infidels however uh one thing that they learned is that people loved the the spices and the silks and the gold and the cool stuff that the middle east had so this turned into a trading revolution as well uh the crusades eventually ended in defeat for the europeans the uh the the so-called infidels still held on to the uh the holy cities like jerusalem europeans liked all the spices and silk of the middle east and also of asia so the crusades created a very high demand for eastern products and so european traders decided that they wanted to feed that demand uh by sending uh expeditions to asia in the mid 1400s like i said this was a time period called the renaissance it was a time of increased interest in science and the arts and trade and exploration uh it is sometimes known as the age of reason so uh during this time thanks to the invention of the printing press books became much more available for common people or at least more common people uh and more people of uh some social classes were able to read new technology also arrived during this time such as the autobiography of marco polo who was allegedly a real person who allegedly traveled to asia who had lots of adventures along the way and whether this is completely factual or not oh boy did it inspire other people to go to asia so there’s a small problem for europe though in order to get to asia you have to travel through the middle east and the middle easterners are not especially happy with europeans if they did allow europeans through their territory they would often force the europeans to pay them and so the ottoman turks controlled the trade routes they would just say you have to pay a toll to use our roads so europe said it’s too expensive to go over land we’re going to have to find a different way to get to asia so the spanish and the portuguese explored new trade routes so spain and portugal were the big european powers during this time they had just pushed the muslim kingdoms off of the iberian peninsula during a time called the reconquista known as the reconquering this is when spain and portugal reconquered the iberian peninsula the muslims were driven out in around about 1492. meanwhile in 1469 ferdinand and isabella got married and this power couple was able to unite spain here are ferdinand and isabella at their wedding looking just so happy to be there so here are spain and portugal as well this is the what we call the iberian peninsula uh being geographically close to both the atlantic ocean and africa made spain and portugal the right places to expand and the portuguese got there first we saw last chapter last section about the portuguese caravel that new ship they had better ships they had better technology they also had better funding because they had a prince named prince henry the navigator who was willing to pay for schools so schools that trained sailors to go down the coast of africa now prince henry is not a sailor himself but he definitely funded a lot of expeditions so here is prince henry the navigator he was alive from 1394 to 1460. he was the son of king john the first of portugal and after his family defeated north african pirates he funded explorations into north africa he also funded the creation of caraval ships and his expeditions reached north africa west africa and a lot of the islands off the coast of africa too so prince henry’s explorers were looking for a way to get down and around africa uh and uh they wanted to get to asia they wanted to get around the ottomans basically afterwards some portuguese expeditions did just that so for instance we had bartolomeo diaz who used atlantic currents to make it all the way down to the cape of good hope which is the southern tip of africa we also had vasco de gama who actually did make it all the way to india these are two portuguese sailors the portuguese were in control of this new trade route and they like i said last section they planted their flag and they said all other european countries back off this is portuguese territory now this was bad for the spanish so here are the routes that uh both bartolomeo diaz and vasco de gama took to get down and around africa now so this the spanish could not go south down africa that was portuguese territory uh they couldn’t get through the ottoman empire it was too expensive so instead they decided we are going to sail straight west across the atlantic ocean and hit asia because there’s certainly nothing in our way uh they didn’t worry however that the world was flat by this time it was considered general knowledge that the world was round they were however worried about the distance that it would take to get to china uh they’re smarter than us in some ways apparently so christopher columbus explored the americas one of the sailors who worked for the spanish was christopher columbus who was in fact not spanish he was italian um columbus’s voyage west was funded by ferdinand and isabella and uh over the next couple of years of his life after arriving in the americas columbus went back and forth a number of times looking to become wealthy and powerful the discovery of america really changed everything in the world it was the game changer it changed america it changed europe it changed africa it eventually changed asia so who is christopher columbus he’s an italian sailor he went to uh the spanish king and queen and said i can get across the atlantic ocean and make it to asia he actually thought the earth was much smaller than it actually is he mismeasured the circumference of the earth by about 7 000 miles uh so he also didn’t realize that there were two big continents in the way of his getting to asia so here is christopher columbus uh lived from 1451 to 1506 he was born in italy uh he offered his services to both the portuguese and the spanish the spanish were the only ones who said yes though and eventually in his life he made four trips to the new world now there are over 70 paintings of christopher columbus and who knows how many statues uh however they were all made after his death and they are all sort of based on guesswork so nobody knows what christopher columbus actually looked like so a lot of people think columbus looks like that guy on the right uh however that was painted over 10 years after columbus died so it’s kind of guesswork at best columbus was not the first european to reach america there had been stories and there is archaeological evidence that the scandinavians the vikings made it to uh amer made it to north america first uh they uh founded a a city that they called vinland in uh what is today modern day canada in newfoundland however it was really cold uh and so they they decided to move and also there was some problems with the native americans who did not like these guys landing on their shores so here are the viking expeditions to north america excuse me north america they went from iceland to greenland to north america basically um island hopping almost to get there so in 1492 spain gave christopher columbus three rather small ships and he left in 1492 looking for china he sailed across the atlantic ocean and 33 days later columbus landed somewhere in the bahamas he thought or at least he said that he thought that he had hit asia he thought he had landed in the indies somewhere so he named the people on these island indios or indians he claimed that these islands were also spanish he planted his flag there he thought he was the representative of a christian nation and therefore you know god gave him the right to claim this land so here are some of the voyages of columbus you can see he made quite a few of them back and forth columbus also expanded uh or established i’m sorry a settlement on the island of hispaniola and then he went back to spain however when he made a return trip he found that the natives had killed all the spanish colonists so columbus came back with an army and they conquered the natives with their firepower and even after he was recalled the colonization continued many natives were killed and many more were turned into slaves although columbus did not find a fast way into asia uh he did discover a lot of new territory with a lot of new material and a lot of new wealth as well and this allowed several european countries to expand over the next few centuries so spain doing so well in this new territory kind of perked up the ears of the portuguese as well so in 1494 uh instead of fighting over it spain and portugal divided up the new world as they called it with a treaty called the treaty of tortosius portuguese got brazil which is why they still speak portuguese in brazil the spain the spain the spanish got pretty much everything else um that was because they considered it fair because the portuguese had already called dibs on africa of course in this equation nobody asked the natives what they thought of this so here’s the line of the treaty of tortosius everything to the left of that line uh technically belonged to spain with this the spanish built an american empire we have several uh people who continued to uh travel to spain uh travel to america i’m sorry uh in search of wealth and in search of riches one of them was john cabot who was an italian who was working for the english his uh a real name was giovanni caboto and he landed in canada and he called his newly discovered area new found land or newfoundland the portuguese sailor pedro alvarez cabral found the coast of brazil there was a sailor and a map maker named amergo vespucci who sailed quite a bit of the south american coast and also mapped them out and he put his name on those maps so this became known as the area of amerigo vespucci so america that’s where we get the the word america from senora vespucci ferdinand magellan uh was his crew was the first one to make it all around the world all the way around to do what’s called circumnavigation magellan unfortunately did not quite make it here is ferdinand magellan we started with a quote from him he was alive from 1480 to 1521 he was born in portugal and his crew made it around the globe however he was killed by filipino tribesmen in a battle of mokton in the philippines so the spanish had settled in the caribbean but they had heard that there was a very powerful native empire known as the aztecs in mexico and so in 1519 hernan cortez uh who was known as a he was a conquistador or a conqueror in spanish uh led 600 soldiers out of cuba to mexico looking for gold that they thought that the aztecs had cortez found the aztec empire led by a man named moktuzuma moktuzuma at first welcomed cortez and his men into tanakatlan the largest city of the aztec empire for a time at least however the spanish were a little overzealous for gold they kidnapped moctezuma and after moctezuma was killed by his own people the spanish were kicked out of tenochtitlan however they returned very soon with reinforcements and destroyed it after their victory hernan cortes took all the gold in the city and put the aztecs to work building a new city out of tanakatlan which he named mexico city they used the stones from the the the temples to build a new cathedral so basically they’re taking the old religion to uh the stones from the old religion to create a new religious cathedral that’s what we call religious imperialism so here is hernan cortes he was alive from 1485 to 1547. he was born in spain he was a lawyer but eventually became a an explorer and after the defeat of the aztecs cortes actually became the first governor of new spain and the quote that he gave when he was talking to the aztecs he said we spaniards know a sickness of the heart that only gold can cure here is old school tinocticlon which is now mexico city the former capital of the aztecs so the spanish conquered big portions of north and south america and they were hoping to get rich which they did however they were also driven by the catholic faith they wanted to convert the native peoples this is also as we’re going to talk about later a time when catholicism was under attack from protestantism and so they wanted to strengthen catholicism they used their guns their steel and their horses all of which were new to the americas to help them conquer central and south america they defeated the inca after the aztec perhaps the most devastating weapon the spanish had was germs and they didn’t at first realize that they were using germs as warfare a disease killed four out of every five native inhabitants of the americas because they had no immunity to european diseases this was horrific for native tribes it also meant however that there was a labor shortage in the americas and spain turned to african slaves they used african slaves in south america and central america and the caribbean uh before they got to north america uh uh with the with the british in the 1600s african slavery first appeared in the caribbean and then worked its way to the mainland so here’s a native american with smallpox smallpox destroyed entire communities now let’s talk about the colombian exchange in this situation the colonizers from europe brought a lot of stuff home with them from america they also brought a lot of stuff from europe to america they brought plants and animals and peoples and germs and all these things traveled back and forth between europe america and africa and we call this the colombian exchange this uh shifting of goods and people and resources and germs back and forth now uh the new arrivals uh to america from europe wanted to turn america into a european style place so they brought over european style plants and animals they brought pigs and horses and mules and sheep and cows they also brought wheat not wat wheat barley rye oats grasses grapes lots of new stuff to the americas these new plants and animals also had a huge impact on america because it changed the american ecosystem they had never had these plants before so american plants and animals were oftentimes pushed out or even exterminated to make way for european goods american plants and a few american animals were headed back to europe as well so american plants like corn and potatoes and tomatoes and peppers and many other new plants were sent to europe some native people also adapted to the new european food and animals uh in particular the plains indians were good at capturing uh wild horses uh and they became excellent horseback riders which they used to go out and hunt the bison so here is a statue of a cheyenne native on a on a horse this is a bronze sculpture by a famous uh american sculptor named frederick remington in 1901. so the colombian exchange also had a big impact on population uh there were new foods from america that helped to feed europe if you don’t believe me just ask the irish who borrowed american potatoes or the italians who suddenly had tomato sauce to put in their pastas this led to a huge boom in population also we saw a lot of europeans beginning to move to the americas native americans however were devastated both by war and by disease and saw their numbers go down drastically african slaves were also transported to the americas as a workforce by the europeans so this is a map of the columbian exchange we’ll get much deeper into that in class
rn

US HIST 1 3

rn

Share this post

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *