Where was Becca

Where was Becca

[Music] hello i’m dan gibson and welcome to another video in the series questions and answers today’s question is where was becca the name becca appears once and only once in the bible in psalm 84 and the name back appears once and only once in the quran surah 3 96 as far as i know all the other references that i have found are later explanations about these two mentions of becca one in the bible one in the quran traditionally there are two locations associated with the name becca the first is that becca is somewhere close to jerusalem but the location has never been clearly identified this interpretation has been accepted by most jews and christians second muslims understand that becca is another name for mecca this is accepted by most muslims now in this short video we’re going to identify a third location one that i think satisfies both descriptions so let’s start with becca in the bible excuse me if i take a few moments to explain what this psalm is all about psalm 84 verse 1 says to the chief musician upon gitoth a psalm for the sons of korah so this is a song it is to be sung or chanted gideth is the rhythm or the beat that is to be sung to and the description tells us that the song is connected to a group of people known as the sons of korah these were a special group of levites or priests who were in charge of moving the tabernacle of god from place to place moses was the one who revealed god’s instructions for how the tabernacle or the tent of worship was to be built the hebrew word for tabernacle is different from the hebrew word for temple a tabernacle refers to a movable tent of worship and the word temple was used for the physical stationary building the temple in israel was built some 400 years after moses and so for 400 years a movable tent was used rather than a physical building as of as i have explained in other youtube videos before the time of david and solomon the children of israel were nomads living in tents with a tabernacle or a tent of worship as the focus of their religion moses is the one who designated that the levites be the ones who are responsible for taking down the tent moving it and setting it up again korah was a cousin to moses and aaron and the descendants of korah are mentioned in exodus chapter 6. now there were three sons asher and el-khanna and abi al-saf the descendants of these three men became three separate tribes but collectively these three tribes were known as the sons of korah now korra was one of those who rebelled in the wilderness and he was killed there but his sons survived and they the tribes grew out of those sons and they were levites who were caretakers for the temple so now can you imagine their job the when the children of israel move from place to place during 40 years of wandering in the wilderness the levites had to get up early earlier than everyone else so they could pack up their own tents and their belongings then after the morning sacrifices they had to disassemble or take apart the entire tabernacle they would pack it up and they would put it on carts or they would put long poles through items so that they could be carried by four men on their shoulders they not only had their own things to carry they also had to carry all the pillars and curtains and ropes and paraphernalia of the of the tabernacle and i’m sure they were sometimes tempted to complain about the extra work that they had to do over and above what everyone else had to do if it had been me i would have been very tempted to complain about all the heavy things that had to be carried from one place to another many of them made out of gold or silver or plated with one of those metals that is why this psalm is filled with irony instead of complaining about the size of the tabernacle and the heavy parts and the extra work their psalm begins how lovely is your tabernacle o lord of hosts my soul longs yes it even faints for the courts of the lord my heart and my flesh cry out for the living god so the next time you want to complain about some extra work you have in serving god remember the sons of korah and their attitude they yearn to be at work around the tabernacle and then the psalm goes on the sparrow has found a home and the swallow a nest for herself where she may lay her young even your altars o lord of hosts my king and my god blessed are those that dwell in your house they will still be praising thee sila so during one of the longer stays when they did not move every day thus some swallows or some birds built their nests in the tabernacle and the sons of korah have noted that these birds get to live in the tabernacle 24 7 and they say blessed are those that dwell in your house or blessed are those that can be in god’s presence for 24 7. and then there’s a little word it’s just a little word but it’s a very important word it is the word sila and to understand this psalm you need to understand and note where the words selah appear selah is used in the book of psalms to inform us that the topic is changing the first section is all about the tabernacle which was to be moved across the desert during the exodus and then was set up in shiloh eventually in israel but selah tells us now that we’ve ended that topic and we’re beginning a new topic this is the topic of becca verse 5 blessed is the man whose strength is in you that’s referring to god in whose heart are the ways of them who passing through the valley of becca make it a well the rain also fills the pools they go from strength to strength every one of them in zion appears before god oh lord of hosts hear my prayer give ear o god of jacob sila and so that section ends now in that little section there are two names that we need to examine one is becca and the second is zion zion is the name of the place that king david captured in order to create his seat of government we find this in 2nd samuel chapter 5. nevertheless david took the strongholds of zion the same is known as the city of david later this small location would be expanded to what we know today as the city of jerusalem but initially it was a small fortified place known as david city the word zion does not appear in the bible before this so the next question is when did this psalm take place this is foundational to understanding this passage so number one note that the word here that is used is tabernacle not temple so this is uh this places the passage in an earlier time before the construction of solomon’s temple but the mention of zion places it after david captures zion from the jebusites and so there’s only a very short period of history when both of these existed at the same time number two so it is a very special period in israel’s history david had just taken the fortification of zion but the tabernacle and the ark of the covenant are not in zion when the children of israel crossed over the jordan from the east that were going into what was would become the the land of israel the tabernacle was set up in gilgal sometime after that it was moved to shiloh number three during the time that eli was the high priest the ark of the covenant was captured by the philistines eventually the philistines sent the ark back but it stayed in a place called nob note that all of these moves the ark of the covenant was not in the tabernacle the tabernacle was still in shiloh later the tabernacle was moved to a place called gibeon and sacrifices took place in gibeon but the ark of the covenant wasn’t there note that zadok the high priest was in gibeon at that time and even solomon went to gibeon to sacrifice now this was before he built the temple in jerusalem which was the final location so let’s review when this was the psalm written the psalm refers to the tabernacle or the mishkakan which is the hebrew word for the tabernacle not the temple so this was before solomon’s temple was built it definitely cannot refer to the rebuilding of the temple under ezra as some have suggested ezra chapter 8 tells us that there were no levites among those who volunteered to go back to rebuild the temple and so they searched for and they found a handful of levites and these are listed and none of them are listed as the sons of korah so we have mention of the sons of korah ministering in the tabernacle or the portable tent that was moved from place to place as long as the israelites were nomads their place of worship was also nomadic with david and solomon there began to be a shift from a more nomadic lifestyle to a more settled lifestyle and the tabernacle was replaced with a stationary tent to understand more of this time period please see my video and the paper on nomads this psalm also makes reference to zion which david conquered and where the ark of the covenant was later located before the temple was built as i said for quite a number of years the ark was in a different place than the tabernacle this separation started during the time of eli the high priest and then went through solemn uh samuel’s time and during this time the ark was captured by the philistines it was never returned to the tabernacle or the tent of worship it was only after solomon’s temple was built that the ark was united with the temple this psalm is speaking of a time when the ark was in zion in a tent that david put up for it but the actual tabernacle with the the inner holy places and everything was still in gibeon one of the great religious acts that david carried out was to arrange to have the ark transported to zion once it arrived it was placed in a tent that david built the hebrew word here is ohil or a tent just a normal tent this was not the tabernacle this was still in gibeon the tabernacle and it was people were making offerings there until the temple was built so this psalm may very well have been written by david for the sons of korah to be sung in the new temple that his son solomon was in the process of building david gathered together much of the material for that temple so it would be no surprise if he also worked and arranged on some of the songs that would be sung there but with david’s son solomon who actually built the temple now i realize that this is confusing to some people but we need to understand the background to psalm 84 for it is in this setting that the psalm makes reference to becca in the second section it says selah blessed is the man whose strength is in you that’s referring to god in whose heart are the ways of them who passing through the valley of becca make it a well the rain also fills the pools they go from strength to strength every one of them in zion appears before god oh lord of hosts hear my prayer give ear o god of jacob selah so we know about zion and that’s where the ark was located we know about gibeon and that’s where the tent of worship was located so what is this mention of a place called the valley of becca because they are mentioned together in the same section as the verses that mention zion many people assume that becca must have been close to zion this is the traditional interpretation now the second place that we find the name becca is in the quran in surah chapter 3 allah speaks the truth so follow the religion of abraham the upright he was not of the idolaters behold the first sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at becca a blessed place a guidance to the peoples were in our obvious signs such as the place where abraham stood up to pray whoever enters it is safe and pilgrimage to this house is a duty unto allah for mankind now barbara and kipper in the encyclopedia of encyclopedic dictionary of archaeology tells us that this is mecca and all down through history muslims have associated becca with mecca they believe that it was in mecca that abraham exiled hagar and her son ishmael they believed that later abraham returned and built a place of worship especially for for ishmael and his sons now earlier abraham had built a place of worship for isaac and his sons at bethel but this one was for the rest of his children and it was for the children of ishmael and all the other children that he had and indeed this verse in the quran tells us that the first sanctuary appointed for all of mankind was that at becca and it relates it to abraham and so muslims today place becca in saudi arabia where is mecca so you have two options here some place becca near jerusalem and some place becca near mecca and saudi arabia now the third idea i would like to present in this video is that i would like to suggest that these two descriptions can be combined together as most of you know i have been promoting the idea that the original holy city of islam was located in the city of petra in southern jordan if you have not heard of this before i suggest you follow the video series archaeology in islam or that you watch the the the video documentary the sacred city and you can find those videos on the the youtube channel and also on the website nabatea.net where they’re all presented in order basically in my studies of early islamic qiblas i discovered that all of the first mosques face towards the city that is known to us today as petra and it is in southern jordan i also found islamic histories and hadiths that seem to support this idea then one day i discovered that azvaki an early islamic historian wrote down the measurements of the kaaba that existed when muhammad was alive these measurements do not match the kaaba in mecca but they match the measurements of a rectangular foundation in petra right in the middle of the city and after uh further study and consideration i now believe that that foundation was the foundation of the first kaaba that was there during the time of the prophet muhammad and during the time of the four rightly guided caliphs who all lived in the city of petra and i believe that the great mountain behind petra had several names to the christians it was known as mount hore or the place uh where pilgrimage was made to aaron’s tomb and there is indeed evidence of archaeological evidence of places for the pilgrims at the top of this mountain where people would go and worship god at the tomb of aaron and today there are ruins of buildings that were there for the pilgrims i also believe that the same mountain was also referred to as jabal arafa by the new muslim community and that they also made pilgrimage to that same mountain near the top of the mountain was a very large flat place that fit the descriptions of the plains of arafa where pilgrims could gather and face the setting sun and worship god this is nothing new for people who have been carefully watching these videos and if you want to check this out for yourself go look at the video on the petra pilgrimage i’ve also pointed out that one of the names of the first city of islam was mecca which was in paran in the desert and that fits the petrol location and we note that several historians in the 8th and 9th century claimed that mecca the mecca was in paran in arabia petriah we also noted that abraham was located in the petra valley long before it was a city that valley was empty and it was there that abraham exiled hagar and ishmael and later then he returned to build an altar so they too could worship the one true god i place all of this in the valley that runs through where petra was later built and so if mecca was located there then becca would also be located there not in saudi arabia so does becca fit what is in the biblical narrative let’s go back to the bible and see in psalm 84 it says who passing through the valley of becca make it a well the rain also fills the pools now why would the jewish people in israel want to go to petra it wasn’t a it wasn’t petra when they were going this is before petra was ever built wouldn’t they want to go on pilgrimage to maybe the tombs of the patriarchs in israel there is one location that is famous today known as the tombs of the patriarchs however the first mention of jewish people going there for pilgrimage is not until the 31 bc when the jewish king which herod the great built a large rectangular enclosure over the cave to commemorate the site for his subjects it is om the only fully surviving uh herod structure uh building that exists there and it had six foot thick walls made from stones that were at least a meter or it’s about three feet and sometimes they reached a length of 24 feet or over 7 meters long the structure did not have a roof and no one has ever located a door it’s as if herod built a large monument and a wall around it and so that it was sealed so no one could get close to the tombs back in the day of david when this psalm was written which was hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of years before this there was no memorial at that location but there was a tomb where aaron was buried numbers chapter 20 says and the lord spoke to moses and aaron in mount hore by the border of the land of edom saying aaron shall die and be gathered to his ancestors for he shall not enter into the land that i have given unto the children of israel because he rebelled against my word at the waters of meribah so take aaron and eleazar his son and bring them up unto mount hore strip aaron of his holy garments and put them on eleazar his son and aaron will be gathered to his people and will die there and moses did as the lord commanded and they went up into mount hor in the sight of the congregation and moses stripped aaron of his dark of his garments and put them on eleazar his son and aaron died there at the top of the mountain and moses and eliaser came down from the mountain and when all the congregations saw that aaron was dead they mourned for aaron thirty days even all the house of israel now to get to mount hor or jimbo heron as it is called today one must pass through the valley of petra the tomb of aaron is on the southwest side of petra at the top of the mountain and it has been a place of pilgrimage going far back into history however because it was under edomite control it was inaccessible to the jews until david conquered that area and this is exactly the time when this psalm was written can you imagine how excited the jewish people were especially the priests who could now go and visit the tomb of aaron who was the first high priest of israel and just before these pilgrims got there they would pass through the valley where tradition tells us that abraham built an altar for ishmael and his descendants a desert valley called becca the place of weeping where hagar wept thinking her child would die where there was only water available that came from rain water that is collected into pools or from a well that would be dug this all fits the location of petra before the nabataeans built their city there and it fits the biblical description of becca if petra is the holy city of islam known as mecca located in peren then the description of it also fits becca a place of pilgrimage and it fits both the biblical and the islamic descriptions by combining the biblical record with the islamic ones we get a picture of a desert valley where hagar and ishmael were left and later abraham returns to them and builds an altar for ishmael and for the rest of abraham’s descendants to worship god those descendants live there and hagar arranges for an egyptian woman to be the wife of ishmael and as i described in the book quranic geography once jacob and his family now they worshipped in bethel up north once they went down into egypt the rest of abraham’s descendants as described here in this book the the chart of nations they all combined forces and were joined by some of the canaanites and other tribes around and they were a federation of nomadic tribes and they then took over and conquered much of the middle east the quran calls these people the people of ud the bible mentions them as living in the land of us the egyptians called them the shasu in any case they had their day but eventually the egyptians crushed them and the once powerful federation of tribes splits up and all that’s left are these smaller tribes and groups and archaeology shows us that these small nations emerged about the same time edom was one of those tribes and they occupied the area of mount seer and also mount hore a few years later moses leads the children of israel in the exodus out of egypt and they eventually bury aaron on the top of mount hore known today as mount heron or the mount of aaron only two men joshua and caleb survive the wanderings in the wilderness and it is their children and their grandchildren of those jews who started out in the exodus who finally enter into the land of canaan then the jews take 400 years to slowly take over all the land all that time are mostly living in tents and hurting animals while they conquered and destroyed city by city across the area eventually david becomes king and he conquers all the way up into syria and all the way down as far as the red sea and when he takes the land of edom pilgrimage to aaron’s tomb suddenly becomes possible and thus the priests and the levites can now take pilgrimage to aaron’s tomb and anybody else who wants to go that tomb is important as the body of moses was never found there is no tomb for moses the bible says that god took him and no one ever found his body so without a tomb for moses the next important person was the tomb of aaron and the levites would be needed to take care of this tomb and to manage the pilgrims who on their way there would need to pass through the valley of becca and they would see and they would remember the time that abraham was there i think it all fits becca is associated with mecca in islam becca is associated with a dry barren valley that the jews would need to pass through and where abraham had built an altar for ishmael that altar eventually is rebuilt and becomes the kaaba a place of worship for the early arabs and it was the catalyst around this which is islam forms now can i prove all this so far we’ve only got one reference in the bible and one reference in the quran and then some suggestions and discussions of muslim writers or jewish or christian writers who write many many years later for me it all fits but each of you will have to decide for yourselves i’m dan gibson and this has been another video in the question and answer series
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Where was Becca

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